Training of resource-limited communities in establishing a grapevine nursery within the wine industry
Van Schalkwyk, D
Fouché, G W
The aim of this project is firstly to train resource-limited farmers in Saron and Ebenhaeser in the establishment and management of mother plantations and nurseries. Secondly, more grafted vines can be supplied to the industry while a contribution is made to the welfare of the community.
Training in all facets of establishing a grapevine nursery continued during 2000 and 2001. The training commenced during 1997 and since then approximately 70 people participated in the grafting training, 36 in the establishment of a nursery and 29 in the lifting and classification of vines. Nurseries were established with six different participants. Due to the lack of necessary infrastructures for grafting and callusing, the standard procedures were adapted to suit the means of resource-limited producers. A gas stove and pot were used successfully for melting the graft wax. Because no callus trays were available, grafted vines were stacked 40 cm high against the warmest wall of a room and isolated with plastic. This method gave excellent callus results and it was easy to control the humidity within the stacks.
Because the aspirant nurserymen were inexperienced the success of nurseries varied dramatically. The percentage take varied between 0 and 79,4%. Water management is still one of the major restraints, although it received special attention during training. The nurserymen are inclined to give either too much or too little water. Irrigation water is one of the major constraints of some of the nurserymen at Ebenhaeser due to a lack of a regular supply of irrigation water from the irrigation canal. They have to supplement their irrigation with municipal water. Some aspirant nurseries socio-economic circumstances changed during the time that they had to manage their nurseries, with the result that their nurseries were neglected.
The project is starting to bear fruit. During 2000 the nursery of Petrus Hahn of Ebenhaeser was registered with the Directorate: Plant Health and Quality Control for producing and selling of uncertified grapevines. During the past two years vines of good quality were sold to local commercial producers. Five South African students participated in the training for six months and took their knowledge to their different communities. Two persons who participated in the training were able to get work in the nursery industry. The KWV”s Plant Improvement Division approved the establishment of a rootstock mother plantation in Ebenhaeser during 2001. This source will supply graft shoots to nurserymen in this community. The KWV also approved the supply of certified graft material to nurserymen who participated in this project.
Training in all facets of establishing a grapevine nursery must continue in these communities because of new participants at Saron. People at Ebenhaeser still need to be trained in the management of a rootstock mother plantation. The rootstock nursery that was grafted seems to be a success but more training is needed to ensure that this type of nursery can be managed with success by resource-limited nurserymen.
Van Schalkwyk, D. 1999. Vestiging van wingerdkwekerye. ARC Nietvoorbij-Infruitec, 29 Jun.
Van Schalkwyk, D. 2002. Introducing emerging farmers to grafting techniques and the establishment of grapevine nurseries at Ebenhaeser and Saron.
Van Schalkwyk, D. 2003. Establishing a grapevine nursery.
Van Schalkwyk, D. 1999. Training of resource limited farmer communities in the management of grapevine nurseries. Winetech, ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij feedback to Olifants River Farmers’ Day, 4 May, Vredendal.
Van Schalkwyk, D. 2000. ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij helps resource-limited farmers to establish grapevine nurseries. 4th Training Course on Biotechnologies for Sustainable Agriculture Development. Zhejiang University, 12-26 September, Hangzhou, China.
Van Schalkwyk, D. 2001. Training of resource limited farmer communities in the management of vine nurseries. Strategic meeting for the sustainable rural livelihood programme, 7-11 May, Simondium.
Van Schalkwyk, D. 1999. ARC Infruit-Nietvoorbij help hulpbron beperkte produsente om ‘n kwekery te vestig, Wynboer, Mnth Jun (p. T9-10)
Van Schalkwyk, D, Le Roux, D J. 1999. ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij leer kleinboere die langtong, Wynboer, Mnth Dec (p. 72)
Van Schalkwyk, D. 2002. Hulpbronbeperkte produsente in Ebenhaeser vestig ‘n onderstokmoederblok vir hul kwekerybedryf, WineLand, Mnth Jun (p. 99)
Van Schalkwyk, D. 2004. Kwekerye op Ebenhaeser bedryf deur hulpbronbeperkte produsente boer vooruit, WineLand, Mnth Nov (p. 105-106)