The use of vine mealybug pheromones for mating disruption in South African vineyards


Project Number
US E-N W1

Project title
The use of vine mealybug pheromones for mating disruption in South African vineyards

Project leader
Walton, V M

Institution
University of Stellenbosch. Department of Entomology

Team members
Daane, K M
Pringle, K L
Samways, M J

Project description
Four seasons of data from trials using vine mealybug pheromones indicated that, the microencapsulated as well as dispenser formulated sex pheromone had a significant effect on male VMB flight behaviour. VMB densities were similar between the pheromone treated and control plots.

It was however found that VMB populations dropped in plots which had low VMB infestations, indicating that low VMB densities are more suitable for VMB mating disruption.
It was found that the microencapsulated sprays lasted 28 days on sprayed leaves and these sprays were therefore applied on a monthly basis. The disadvantage of using the spray-able formulation in rainy conditions was evident during 2004 – 2005 in Stellenbosch. Here rain directly after the applications resulted in less optimal disruption of adult male VMB. None of the lures or colours used in pheromone traps were more effective than the other and it was decided to continue with the current trap monitoring protocol.

Economic damage was significantly lower in the pheromone-treated plots in the United States but differences were not significant in South Africa. Significant more undeveloped eggs were found in the pheromone-treated plots in South Africa but no differences were found in the United States. Significant less crawlers were found in the pheromone treated blocks in the United States and in the South Africa less, but not significantly so. Percent parasitism was higher in both continents in the treated sub-plots. These facts lead us to believe that, this new method of control shows promise and continued efforts should be focused on its development.

Presentation(s)
Walton, V M. 2003. Integrated vine mealybug control in South Africa. Unified Wine and Grape Symposium, January, Sacramento California, United States.

Walton, V M. 2004. Integrated control of mealybug. April. Sun-Maid Farmers’ Day, Lodi California, United States.

Walton, V M. 2004. Seasonal population studies of vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret), and it’s natural enemies in vineyards in the Western Cape, South Africa. California Conference on Biological Control, July, Berkeley, California, United States.

Walton, V M. 2005. Managing mealybugs as a vine leafroll vector. Gallo Winery Farmer’s Day, April, Lodi, California, United States.

Walton, V M. 2005. Mealybugs in California vineyards. California Polytechnical University, May, San Louis Obispo California, United States.

Walton, V M. 2005. Integrated mealybug management. Oregon State University, June, Corvallis, Oregon, United States.

Walton, V M. 2005. Mating disruption of vine mealybug with female sex pheromone. Congress of the Entomological Society of South Africa, Grahamstown. South Africa.

Article
Walton, V M, Daane, K M, Pringle, K L. 2004. Monitoring Planococcus ficus in South Africa vineyards with sex pheromone-baited traps, Crop Protection, v. 23 (11) (p. 1089-1096)

Walton, V M. 2004. Protokol vir witluisbeheer in wingerd (produksieblokke) WineLand, Mnth Sep (182) (p. 96-99)

Walton, V M. 2004. Die gebruik van graaddae as hulp in die bepaling van wingerdwitluis besmetting in wingerde, WineLand, Mnth Dec (185) (p. 76)

Walton, V M, Pringle, K L. 2005. Developmental biology of vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret)(Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) and its parasitoid Coccidoxenoides perminutus (Timberlake) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtridae) African Entomology, v. 13 (1) (p. 143-147)

Danne, K M, Bentley, W J, Walton, V M, Malakar-Kuenen, R, Yokota, G Y, Millar, J G, Ingels, C A, Weber, E A, Gispert, C. 2006. New controls sought for the invasive vine mealybug, Californian Agriculture, v. 60 (1) (p. 31-83)

FinalReport.pdf

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