Rapid Descriptive Sensory Methods for Wine Evaluation: Special Focus on Investigating the Effects of Vinification Techniques on Chenin Blanc Wine Sensory Attributes


Project Number
IWBT W 13-02

Project title
Rapid descriptive sensory methods for wine evaluation: special focus on investigating the effects of vinification techniques on Chenin blanc wine sensory attributes

Project leader
Nieuwoudt, H H

Institution
University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of AgriSciences. Institute for Wine Biotechnology

Team members
Tredoux, A
Setati, E
Antalick, G
Kidd, M
Brand, J
Tates, T
Valetine, D

Project description
The sensory laboratory of the Department of Enology and Viticulture, Stellenbosch University has recently acquired equipment and software that makes computerised sensory evaluations possible. This acquisition is a step forward towards implementation of the sensory facility to meet the needs of research and industry. The first task is to do development, validation and optimisation of sensory evaluation methods. The project is designed to generate data that can contribute towards the establishment of the DVO sensory facility, while concurrently, also use these newly evaluated methods, to investigate the effect of vinification techniques on the sensory attributes of Chenin blanc wine.

Conventional sensory descriptive profiling (CP) methods require panels that are trained to use predetermined sensory vocabulary to profile different products. Although accurate and repeatable data are generated with CP, the method has several drawbacks; these include high cost and time implications, as well as the fact that assessors cannot freely decide on vocabulary to indicate differences between samples. CP thus largely excludes the consumers’ point of view, which is a much needed source of information for product development. Therefore, the investigation into rapid sensory descriptive tests in which consumers point of view is captured, can provide valuable information regarding the sensory attributes of wine and product development.

There has been little research linking the effects of vinification techniques to changes in sensory attributes and resulting impact on consumer liking. This is particularly true for dry and off-dry Chenin blanc wines that are produced by spontaneous fermentations and those produced with skin contact. This project will therefore focus on the establishment of trained sensory panels to do CP of taste, tactile and aroma attributes of wines produced by these two vinification techniques. Concurrently, the focus will be on the development, validation and implementation of a portfolio of rapid descriptive sensory methods (including sensometric statistical methods for data analysis) for wine evaluation. In addition to sensory profiling, consumer liking and perception tests will also be done on the wines.

Towards implementation of the sensory facility at University of Stellenbosch, the proposed rapid descriptive methods will also be validated for their suitability on a range of different red and white wine styles. One of the styles that will be used towards this objective is sweet white wines, including special late harvest (SLH) and noble late harvest (NLH) wines. These wines, apart from offering challenging attributes such as mouthfeel and other tactile sensations, can be fatiguing in sensory testing, due to the high sugar content. Evaluation of the sensory profiling methods in this genre is much needed.

In summary, this project therefore concentrates on evaluation and implementation of a portfolio of rapid sensory descriptive tests and statistical methods, with specific aim to evaluate their strengths and shortcomings when applied to different wine styles and matrices. The focus will be on: (i) commercial Chenin blanc wines produced by skin contact and spontaneous fermentations; respectively (ii) experimental Chenin blanc wines produced by skin contact; and (iii) other wines styles (including experimental wines) of interest to current research projects of the University of Stellenbosch Department of Viticulture and Enology and Institute for Wine Biotechnology, as well as industry.

The main objectives are:
1. sensory profiling, consumer liking and perception tests on commercial Chenin blanc wines to evaluate the sensory changes associated with spontaneous fermentation, in comparison with inoculated fermentations
2. sensory profiling, consumer liking and perception test on commercial Chenin blanc wines to evaluate the sensory changes associated with skin contact, in comparison to wines without skin contact
3. sensory profiling, consumer liking and perception test on experimental Chenin blanc wines produced with different durations of skin contact
4. establishment of workflow for sensory evaluation of various wine styles.

Poster(s)
Brand, J, Valetin, D, Vivier, M A, Naes, T and Nieuwoudt, H H. 2015. Testing the effect of ballot term randomisation on ‘Pick-K-Attributes’, using the white wine profiling with an expert panel as a case study. 2015. 1st AfroSence Conference, 23-26 November 2015, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Brand, J, Valentin, D, Vivier, M A, Naes, T, Nieuwoudt, H H. 2016. Comparing two frequency based sensory profiling methods using a trained panel: Pivot profile and frequency of attribute citation. Poster presented at Eurosense Conference. 12-14 September, Dijon, France.

Brand, J, Nieuwoudt, H H. 2016. Novel strategy for dynamic characterisation of the sensory changes in the headspace of wine using the sorting task. Poster presented at Eurosense Conference. 12-14 September, Dijon, France.

Crous, R, Panzeri, V, Brand, J, Nieuwoudt, H H. 2016. The evaluation of mouthfeel attributes in Chenin blanc wine made from old vineyards: A comparison of descriptive analysis and polarised sensory positioning. Poster presented at Eurosense Conference. 12-14 September, Dijon France.

Crous, R, Panzeri, V, Brand, J, Nieuwoudt, H H. 2016. Crafting South African Chenin blanc wines. Poster presented at Spotlight on Chenin. 28 October, Rawsonville, South Africa.

Mapheleba, A, Pentz, C, Muller, N, Oertle, I, Nieuwoudt, H H. 2016. Listening to the consumer’s voice: opportunities for Chenin blanc. Poster presented at Spotlight on Chenin. 28 October, Rawsonville, South Africa.

Nieuwoudt, H H, Krynauw, S. 2016. Spotlight on Chenin blanc research data warehouse. Poster presented at Spotlight on Chenin. 28 October, Rawsonville, South Africa.

Daniels, A J, Opara, U L, Nieuwoudt, H H. Crous, R, Panzeri, V, Nieuwoudt, H H. 2016. Crafting South African old-vine Chenin blanc wine. Poster presented at 38th South African Society of Enology and Viticulture Conference. 23-25 August, Somerset West, South Africa.

Presentation(s)
Brand, J, Valetin, D, Vivier, M A, Naes, T and Nieuwoudt, H H. 2013. Rapid descriptive sensory methods for wine evaluation. Paper presented at the 35th South African Society for Enology and Viticulture Conference. 13-15 November, Somerset West, South Africa.

Brand, J, and Nieuwoudt, H H. 2014. Sustainable sensory profiling of wine: Pros and cons of rapid methods. Paper presented at the 36th South African Society for Enology and Viticulture Conference. 12-14 November, Somerset West, South Africa.

Kruger van Eck, M, and Nieuwoudt, H H. 2014. Sensory analysis and chemical profiling of naturally fermented Sauvignon blanc wine. Paper presented at the 36th South African Society for Enology and Viticulture Conference. 12-14 November, Somerset West, South Africa.

Weightman, C, and Nieuwoudt, H H. 2014. Sensory evaluation and consumer acceptance testing of Chenin blanc wines produced by skin contact and natural fermentation. Paper presented at the 36th South African Society for Enology and Viticulture Conference. 12-14 November, Somerset West, South Africa.

Nieuwoudt, H H. 2015. What does sensory science offer? Insights gained from Chenin blanc research. Presentation at the Pinotage Association AGM. 18 June, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Brand, J, Valentin, D, Vivier, M A, Naes, T and Nieuwoudt, H H. 2015. Comparison of rapid sensory techniques for white wine profiling using experts as panelists. Paper presented at the 1st AfroSense Conference. 23-26 November 2015, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Brand, J, Valentin, D, Vivier, M A, Naes, T and Nieuwoudt, H H. 2015. Pivot profiling applied to wine sensory evaluation. Paper presented at the 1st AfroSense Conference. 23-26 November 2015, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Crouse, R, Panzeri, V and Nieuwoudt, H H. 2015. Framework for training a descriptive analysis sensory panel to evaluate mouthfeel attributes in wine: A special focus on a product category unfamiliar to panellists. Paper presented at the 1st AfroSense Conference. 23-26 November 2015, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Brand, J, Van Antwerpen, L, Nieuwoudt, H H. 2016. Sorting in combination with quality scoring as a tool to identify drivers of quality for premium Sauvignon blanc wine. Paper presented at the 38th South African Society for Enology and Viticulture Conference. 23-25 August, Somerset West, South Africa.

Crous, R, Panzeri, V, Brand, J, Nieuwoudt, H H. 2016. Traditional Descriptive Analysis versus an alternative rapid method for the analysis of in-mouth sensations in wine. Paper presented at the 38th South African Society for Enology and Viticulture Conference. 23-25 August, Somerset West, South Africa.

Crous, R, Panzeri, V, Nieuwoudt, H H. 2016. Crafting South African old-vine Chenin blanc wine. Paper presented at the 38th South African Society for Enology and Viticulture Conference. 23-25 August, Somerset West, South Africa.

Nieuwoudt, H H, Krynauw, S. 2016. From lab to industry: the journey of South African Chenin blanc wine research data. Paper presented at the 38th South African Society for Enology and Viticulture Conference. 23-25 August, Somerset West, South Africa.

Williams, E M, Nieuwoudt, H H. 2016. Sensory evaluation of wine: new insights into strategies used by panellists for the sorting task. Paper presented at the 38th South African Society for Enology and Viticulture Conference. 23-25 August, Somerset West, South Africa.

Brand, J, Van Antwerpen, L, Nieuwoudt, H H. 2015. Investigating the suitability of sorting in combination with quality scoring to identify drivers of quality using wine industry professionals as sensory judges. Presentation at the Afrosense 2015 Conference. 23-26 November, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Nieuwoudt, H H. 2016. Chenin blanc research at Stellenbosch University. Presentation at Spotlight on Chenin. 28 October, Rawsonville, South Africa.

Van der Colff, N, Pentz, C D, Nieuwoudt, H H. 2016. Chenin blanc in the limelight: addressing South African consumers’ uncertainties. Presented at Spotlight on Chenin, 28 October, Rawsonville, South Africa.

Oertle, I, Nieuwoudt, H H. 2016. Chenin blanc retail landscape. Presentation at Spotlight on Chenin. 28 October, Rawsonville, South Africa.

Crous, R, Panzeri, V, Nieuwoudt, H H. 2016. Shedding light on old-vine Chenin sensory. Presented at Spotlight on Chenin. 28 October, Rawsonville, South Africa.

Crous, R, Panzeri, V, Brand, J, Nieuwoudt, H H. 2016. Traditional Descriptive Analysis versus an alternative rapid method for the analysis of in-mouth sensations in wine. Presented at the 38th South African Society of Enology Poster presented at 38th South African Society of Enology and Viticulture Conference. 23-25 August, Somerset West, South Africa.

Mapheleba, A, Pentz, C, Muller, N, Oertle, I, Nieuwoudt, H H. 2016. Sensory perceptions of South African Chenin blanc wine. Perspectives of sommeliers, winemakers and retail experts. Presented at the 38th South African Society of Enology and Viticulture Conference. 23-25 August, Somerset West, South Africa.

Article
Aleixandre-Tudo, J L, Weightman, C, Panzeri, V, Nieuwoudt, H H, Du Toit, W J. 2015. Effect of skin contact before and during alcoholic fermentation on the chemical and sensory profile of South African Chenin blanc white wines, South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture, v. 36 (3) (p. 366-377)
Article.pdf

Brand, J, Nieuwoudt, H H. 2016. Die sensoriese evaluering van wyn (Deel 3). Projeksiekartering en Napping® is vinnige, maklike metodes om sensoriese verskille en ooreenkomste tussen wyne te beskryf, WineLand, Mnth Apr (p. 57-59)
Article.pdf

Brand, J, Nieuwoudt, H H. 2016. Die sensoriese evaluering van wyn (Deel 4). Merk-alles-van-toepassing (CATA) – profilering van wyn met behulp van veelvuldige keusevrae – is nog ‘n vinnige en maklike metode om sensoriese verskille en ooreenkomste tussen wyne te beskryf, WineLand, Mnth May (p. 62-64)
Article.pdf

Brand, J, Nieuwoudt, H H. 2016. Die sensoriese evaluering van wyn (Deel 2). Die sorteringsmetode is ‘n vinnige en maklike metode om sensoriese verskille en ooreenkomste tussen wyne te beskryf, WineLand, Mnth Apr (p. 67-69)
Article.pdf

Brand, J, Nieuwoudt, H H. 2016. Sensory evaluation of wine (Part II). Sorting – a fast and simple method to describe sensory differences and similarities between wines, Wineland, Mnth March
http://www.wineland.co.za/sensory-evaluation-of-wine-part-2/

Brand, J, Nieuwoudt, H H. 2016. Sensory Evaluation of Wine (Part III) Projective mapping and Napping® Wineland, Mnth April
http://www.wineland.co.za/sensory-evaluation-of-wine-part-3/

Brand, J, Nieuwoudt, H H. 2016. Methods for Sensory Evaluation of Wine (Part IV) Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) – profiling of wine with multiple choice questions, Wineland, Mnth May
http://www.wineland.co.za/sensory-evaluation-of-wine-part-4/

Rossouw, D, Bauer, F F. 2016. Exploring the phenotypic space of non-Saccharomyces wine yeast biodiversity, Food Microbiology, Mnth May v. 55 (p. 32-46)
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2015.11.017

Weightman, C, Brand, J, Nieuwoudt, H H. 2016. Die sensoriese evaluering van wyn (Deel 1). Die opleiding van personeel om die sensoriese beoordeling van wyn by hul onderskeie kelders te bestuur, kan baie waardevol vir die kelder se gehaltebeheer en produkontwikkeling wees, WineLand, Mnth Feb (p. 69-75)
Article.pdf

Weightman, C J, Brand, J, Nieuwoudt, H H. 2016. Sensory Evaluation of Wine (Part I) A Short overview of useful methods for the wine industry, Wineland, Mnth February
http://www.wineland.co.za/sensory-evaluation-of-wine-part-1/

Crous, R, Panzeri, V, Nieuwoudt, H. 2017. Sensory evaluation of mouthfeel in wine, Wineland, Mnth Sep
http://www.wineland.co.za/sensory-evaluation-mouthfeel-wine/

Crous, R, Panzeri, V, Nieuwoudt, H. 2017. Sensoriese evaluering van wynpalet: ‘n mondvol, Wineland, Mnth Sep (p. 68-69)

Valente, C, Bauer, F F, Valentin, D, Venter, F, Watson, B, Nieuwoudt, H. 2018. Modelling the sensory space of varietal wines: Mining of large, unstructured text data and visualisation
of style patterns, Scientific Reports, v. 8 (4987)
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-23347-w

Thesis
Weightman, C J. 2014. Characterization of Chenin blanc wines produced by natural fermentation and skin contact: focus on application of rapid sensory profiling methods (MSc. AgriSciences) University of Stellenbosch, Faculty of AgriSciences, Institute for Wine Biotechnology, Stellenbosch.

Crous, R. 2016. The sensory characterisation of old-vine Chenin blanc wine: an exploratory study of the dimensions of quality (MSc. AgriSciences) Stellenbosch University, Faculty of AgriSciences, Institute for Wine Biotechnology, Stellenbosch.

Valente, C C. 2016. Understanding South African Chenin blanc wine by using data mining techniques applied to published sensory data (MSc. AgriSciences) Stellenbosch University, Faculty of AgriSciences, Institute for Wine Biotechnology. Stellenbosch.

FinalReport.pdf

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