Preliminary investigation of terrain demarcation for wine growing areas in the Western Cape

Project Number
WW 13-02

Project leader
Carey, V A

Project title
Preliminary investigation of terrain demarcation for wine growing areas in the Western Cape

Project leader
Carey, V A

Institution
University of Stellenbosch

Project description
The significant effect of terrain (interaction between soil, climate and topography) on wine quality and character is internationally recognized and the need for studies of these effects has been outlined by the Office International de la Vigne et du Vin. In order to remain competitive in an ever-expanding international wine market it is necessary to produce unique wines of a high quality. This study aims to identify terrains in the Stellenbosch-Klein Drakenstein study area with the potential to produce such wines.

Natural terroir units have been identified in the Bottelaryberg Simonsberg Helderberg study area based on topography, soil and geology.

Winter 2000 was warm and dry. The ripening period was cool during December and January but February 2001 was the warmest recorded thus far. Various bioclimatic indices have been used to describe the climate of the weather stations in the Stellenbosch-Drakenstein network for the 2000 – 2001 season.

The effect of season and site climates on the aroma profile of the wines was clear for all three cultivars. The interaction with other factors (soil type, soil depth and vines’ virus status) also had an effect on the reaction of the vine and, therefore, on the wine aroma. These need to be studied in greater depth.

Soil profile descriptions and analyses have been performed at the experimental plots and can be used in further analyses.

It is recommended that the project be continued, but that future objectives of terroir research in South Africa be discussed by a multidisciplinary team.

Poster(s)
De Villiers, F S, Taljaardt, R and Schmidt, A. 1995. Potential impact of a climate change on South African viticulture. Poster presented at the Regional Conference for Africa: Global Environmental Change Implications for Southern Africa. 24-26 April, Pretoria, South Africa.

Bonnardot, V M F and De Villiers, F S. 1997. Sea breeze in the Stellenbosch and Klein Drakenstein wine producing district. Poster presented at the 14th National Congress of the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture. 18-19 November, Somerset West, South Africa.

Carey, V A. 1999. The potential of Ficksburg and surrounding areas for wine grape cultivation. Presentation at the Agricultural Research Council Farmers’ Day. 27 May, Ficksburg, South Africa.

Bonnardot, V M F. 1999. Climate and Sauvignon Blanc performance in Stellenbosch area for the 1995 – 1999 period. Poster presented at the 24th National Congress of the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture. 18-19 November, Somerset West, South Africa.

Carey, V A. 1999. The spatial characterisation of viticultural terrains in the Bottelaryberg – Helderberg wine growing area. Poster presented at the 24th National Congress of the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture. 18-19 November, Somerset West, South Africa.

Carey, V A. 2000. The spatial characterisation of viticultural terrains in the Bottelaryberg – Helderberg wine growing area. Poster presented at the 3rd International Symposium of Viticultural Zoning. May 2000, Tenerife, Spain.

Planchon, O, Bonnardot, V M F and Cautenet, S. 2000. Étude des circulations de Brise de mer dans la province occidentale du cap: observations et modelisation. Poster presented at the AIC Congress. September, Nice, Italy.

Carey, V A. 2000. The delimitation of macro-climatic regions in the Western Cape with the aid of a geographic information system and the determination of their potential for various cultivars. Presentation to the OIV Group of Experts: Vitivinicultural Zoning, 6 March.

Presentation(s)
De Villiers, F S. 1993. Terreinafbakening vir die Wes-Kaapse wynbou area. Klimaatsbehoefte van die landboubedrywe in die Suid- en Wes-Kaap, IGKW Symposium, 29 September, Cape Town, South Africa.

De Villiers, F S and Van Schalkwyk, D. 1995. The effect of crop levels induced by bud load on grape and wine quality. Paper presented at the 5th International Symposium of Enology. 15-17 June 1995, Bordeaux, France.

Bonnardot, V M F and De Villiers, F S. 1997. Sea-breeze in the Stellenbosch-Klein Drakenstein wine producing district. Paper presented at the 22nd National Congress of the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture. 12-13 November, Cape Town, South Africa.

De Villiers, F S. 1997. The use of a geographic information system in the selection of wine cultivars for the specific areas by using temperature climatic models. Paper presented at the 22nd World Congress of Vine and Wine and the 77th General Assembly of the OIV. 1-5 December 1997, Buenos Aires, Argentine.

De Villiers, F S. 1997. Terreinkeuse: Druifproduksie met spesifieke wyndoelwit. Presentation at the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture Refresher Course. 4 September, Cape Town, South Africa.

Schmidt, A. 1999. The influence of terrain selection on Cabernet Sauvignon. Paper presented at the 24th National Congress of the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture. 18-19 November, Somerset West, South Africa.

Carey, V A. 1999. The spatial characterisation of viticultural terrains in the Bottelary Helderberg wine growing area. Paper presented at the 24th National Congress of the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture. 18-19 November, Somerset West, South Africa.

Bonnardot, V M F, Carey, V A and Schmidt, A. 1999. The effect of mesoclimate on Sauvignon blanc aroma profiles in the Stellenbosch wine growing area (1996 – 1999). Paper presented at the 24th National Congress of the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture. 18-19 November, Somerset West, South Africa.

Schmidt, A, Bonnardot, V M F and Carey V A. 1999. The influence of terrain selection on Cabernet Sauvignon. Paper presented at the 24th National Congress of the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture. 18-19 November, Somerset West, South Africa.

Hudson, D A and Carey, V A. 1999. Potential climate change impacts on viticulture in the south Western Cape. Paper presented at the 15th Conference of the South African Atmospheric Sciences. 8-19 November 1999. Richard’s Bay, South Africa.

Carey, V A. 2000. Viticultural terroir identification. Recommendations to growers. 20 November, Stellenbosch.

Theron, J C D. 2000. Vertraagde bot. Presentation to Stellenbosch Farmers’ Winery. 4 August, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Bonnardot, V M F, Planchon, O, Carey, V A and Cautenet, S. 2000. Sea breeze numerical simulation in the Western Cape Province: A means to identify wine growing areas affected by cool temperatures, high humidity and strong winds. Paper presented at the 2nd International Congress of the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture. 8-10 November, Cape Town, South Africa.

Carey, V A. 2000. The delimitation of macro-climatic regions in the Western Cape with the aid of a geographic information system and the determination of their potential for various cultivars. Presentation to the OIV Group of Experts: Vitivinicultural Zoning.

Carey, V A and Bonnardot, V M F. 2000. Spatial characterisation of terrain units in the Bottelary-Simonsberg-Helderberg wine growing area. Paper presented at the 3rd International Symposium of Viticultural Zoning. May 2000, Tenerife. Spain.

Planchon, O, Bonnardot, V M F, Cautenet, S and Carey, V A. 2000. Sea breeze numerical simulations in the Stellenbosch wine growing area. Paper presented at the 2nd International Congress of the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture. 8-10 November, Cape Town, South Africa.

Carey, V A. 2001. The Wine of Origin Scheme in South Africa. Presentation to visiting members of Fédération des Cooperatives vinicoles d’Aquitaine. 31 March, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Carey, V A, Bonnardot, V M F, Schmidt, A and Theron, J C D. 2001. The interaction between vintage, vineyard site (meso-climate) and wine aroma of Vitis vinifera L. cvs. Sauvignon blanc, Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon in the Stellenbosch-Klein Drakenstein wine growing area, South Africa (1996-2000). Paper presented at the 26th World Congress of the Vine and Wine and the 81st General Assembly of the OIV. 11-17 October 2001, Adelaide, Australia.

Du Preez, C, Bonnardot, V M F, Cautenet, S, Planchon, O and Carey, V A. 2001. Sea breeze numerical simulation at a 200 meter-grid resolution in the Stellenbosch Helderberg wine-growing area. Paper presented at the 25th National Congress of the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture. 15-16 November, Somerset West, South Africa.

Du Preez, C, Dyson, L, Bonnardot, V M F, Cautenet, S, Planchon, O and Carey, V A. 2001. Numerical simulations of a sea breeze in the Stellenbosch area. 17th South African Society for Atmospheric Science Conference. September 2001, Cape Town, South Africa.

Bonnardot, V M F, Cautenet, S, Du Preez, C, Planchon, O and Carey, V A. 2001. Identification of climate limits and coolest areas resulting from the sea breeze effect in the Stellenbosch Helderberg wine growing area. Paper presented at the 25th National Congress of the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture. 15-16 November, Somerset West. South Africa.

Bonnardot, V M F. 1999. Climate and Sauvignon Blanc performance in Stellenbosch area for the 1995 – 1999 period. Paper presented at the 24th National Congress of the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture. 18-19 November, Somerset West, South Africa.

Carey, V A, Archer, E and Saayman, D. 2001. Spatial characterisation of natural terroir units for viticulture in the Bottelary Simonsberg Helderberg wine growing area. Paper presented at the 25th National Congress of the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture. 15-16 November, Somerset West. South Africa.

Bonnardot, V M F, Cautenet, S, Du Preez, C, Planchon, O and Carey, V A. 2001. Modélisation atmosphérique méso-échelle: un outil pour l’identification des terroirs viticoles en Afrique du Sud. Paper presented at the Congress of the International Association for Climatology. September, Seville, Spain.

Bonnardot, V M F, Cautenet, S, Du Preez, C, Planchon, O and Carey, V A. 2002. Atmospheric modelling: a tool to assess the sea breeze effect in the south Western Cape wine growing area. Paper presented at the 27th World Congress of Vine and Wine and the 82nd General Assembly of the OIV. 24-28 June 2002, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Carey, V A. 2002. Cultivar and environment interaction: example of Cabernet Sauvignon in the Stellenbosch Drakenstein wine growing area, South Africa. Presentation to the OIV Group of Experts: Zonage Vitivinicole. March, Paris, France.

Carey, V A, Archer, E and Saayman, D. 2002. Identification of natural terroir units for viticulture, Stellenbosch, South Africa. Paper presented at the 4th International Symposium on Viticultural Zoning. 17-20 June 2002, Avignon, France.

Carey, V A and Bonnardot, V M F. 2002. A viticultural perspective of meso-scale atmospheric modelling in the Bottelary Simonsberg Helderberg wine growing area (South Africa). Paper presented at the 27th World Congress of Vine and Wine and the 82nd General Assembly of the OIV. 24-28 June 2002, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Carey, V A and Bonnardot, V M F. 2002. A viticultural perspective of meso-scale atmospheric modelling in the Stellenbosch wine growing area, South Africa. Paper presented at the 4th International Symposium on Viticultural Zoning. 17-20 June 2002, Avignon, France.

Bonnardot, V M F. 2002. The sea breeze: a significant climate factor for viticultural zoning in coastal wine growing areas. Paper presented at the 4th International Symposium on Viticultural Zoning. 17-20 June 2002, Avignon, France.

Article
De Villiers, F S. 1995. Wingerdboukundiges besoek Europa om ondersoek in te stel na die konsep van wingerd terreinafbakening, Wynboer, Mnth Nov (p. T11-12)

De Villiers, F S, Schmidt, A, Theron, J C D. 1995. Reënvalverspreiding as die vertrekpunt vir die afbakening van wingerdterreine van die Bottelary-, Simons- en Helderberg-area, Wynboer, Mnth Mar (p. T3-4)

De Villiers, F S, Schmidt, A, Theron, J C D, Taljaard, R. 1996. Onderverdeling van die Wes-Kaap wynbougebiede volgens bestaande klimaatskriteria, Wynboer, Mnth Jan (p. T10-12)

De Villiers, F S. 1997. Februarie temperatuur. Nuwe toets vir druifpotentiaal, Wynboer, Mnth Feb (p. 33-34)

Carey, V A. 1998. Terrain identification in Italy and southern France, Wynboer, Mnth Nov (p. T2-5)

Bonnardot, V M F, Carey, V A, Schmidt, A. 2000. The effect of vintage and location on Sauvignon blanc wines aroma in the Stellenbosch-Klein Drakenstein wine growing area (vintage 1996-1999) WineLand, Mnth Oct (p. 114-118)

Bonnardot, V M F, Carey, V A, Planchon, O, Cautenet, S. 2001. Sea breeze mechanism and observations of its effects in the Stellenbosch wine producing area, WineLand, Mnth Oct (p. 107-113)

Carey, V A, Archer, E, Saayman, D. 2002. Natural terroir units: What are they? How can they help the wine farmer, WineLand, Mnth Feb (p. 86-88)

Carey, V A, Bonnardot, V M F, Schmidt, A, Theron, J C D. 2003. The interaction between vintage, vineyard site (meso-climate) and wine aroma of Vitis vinifera L. Sauvignon blanc, Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon in the Stellenbosch Klein Drakenstein wine producing region, Bulletin d’OIV, v. 76 (863-864) (p. 4-29)

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