Isolation and identification of micro-organisms occurring in grapevine nursery material

Project Number
WW 06-20

Project title
Isolation and identification of micro-organisms occurring in grapevine nursery material

Project leader
Halleen, F

Team members
Crous, P W

Project description
Over the last few years a drastic reduction in the percentage survival of vine cuttings due to young vine decline has been noted in nurseries, as well as in young vineyards in the Western Cape Province. Studies have indicated Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and Phaeoacremonium aleophilum to be the primary organisms involved in young vine decline. Limited information is available on the etiology of the disease and the epidemiology of these plant pathogens. Furthermore, other fungi, or combinations thereof, presumably also play a role in the disease complex. A study was therefore undertaken to identify the fungi associated with apparently healthy grapevine nursery material.

The fungi most frequently isolated from grapevine cuttings in three nurseries over the four isolation dates are discussed. Cylindrocarpon was by far the most frequently isolated. The isolation studies clearly demonstrated that primary pathogens associated with young vine decline, such as Pa. chlamydospora and Pm. aleophilum, were already present in the healthy rootstock propagation material as endophytes. Plants were therefore infected, even before nurseries received them. However, Cylindrocarpon spp., which cause black foot disease, rarely occurred in propagation material. Species of this genus were isolated at higher percentages later during the season. Less than 1% of the plants were infected with Cylindrocarpon spp. before planting in the nursery (October), whereas 70% or more of the plants were infected at the end of the season (June). It would appear, therefore, that Pa. chlamydospora and Pm. aleophilum occurred as endophytes in propagation material. Cylindrocarpon spp., on the other hand, infected the cuttings in the nurseries.

These findings suggest that the low percentage survival of grapevine plants observed in recent years is partly due to infected propagation material, and to new infections established in nurseries.

Poster(s)
Halleen F, Crous, P W and Petrini, O. 2001. Fungi associated with healthy grapevine cuttings in nurseries in the Western Cape Province. Poster presented at the 39th Congress of the Southern African Society for Plant Pathology. 21-24 January, Nelspruit, South Africa.

Presentation(s)
Van Rensburg, P, Strauss, M L A, Lambrechts, M G, Jolly, N P and Pretorius, I S. 1999. Screening of non-Saccharomyces wine yeast for the presence of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Paper presented at the 24th National Congress of the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture. 14-15 November, Cape Town, South Africa.

Van Rensburg, P, Strauss, M L A, Lambrechts, M G, Jolly, N P and Pretorius, I S. 1999. Screening of non-Saccharomyces wine yeast for the presence of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Paper presented at the 24th National Congress of the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture. 14-15 November, Cape Town. South Africa.

Halleen, F, Crous, P W and Petrini O. 2001. Fungi associated with healthy grapevine cuttings in nurseries in the Western Cape Province. Paper presented at the 39th Congress of the Southern African Society for Plant Pathology. 21-24 January, Nelspruit, South Africa.

Fourie, P H and Halleen, F. 2001. Field observations of black goo decline and black foot disease of grapevine. Paper presented at the 39th Congress of the Southern African Society for Plant Pathology, 21-24 January, Nelspruit, South Africa.

Fourie, P H and Halleen, F. 2001. Field and diagnostic observations of grapevine decline in South Africa. Paper presented at the 11th Congress of the Mediterranean Phytopathological Union. 17-20 September, Evora, Portugal.

Halleen, F, Crous, P W and Petrini, O. 2001. Fungi associated with healthy grapevine cuttings in nurseries in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Paper presented at the 13th Biennial Conference of the Australasian Plant Pathology Society. 24-27 September, Cairns, Australia.

Fourie, P H and Halleen, F. 2001. Grapevine decline in South Africa with specific reference to black goo decline and black foot disease. Paper presented at the 13th Biennial Conference of the Australasian Plant Pathology Society. 27 September, Cairns, Australia.

Fourie, P H and Halleen, F. 2001. Current understanding of black goo decline and black foot disease of grapevine. Paper presented at the 26th National Congress of the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture. 15-16 November, Somerset West, South Africa.

Fourie, P and Halleen, F. 2001. Black goo en swartvoet- terugsterwing by wingerd. Advanced nursery course. Presentation to the Vine Improvement Association. 25 April, Paarl, South Africa.

Fourie, P and Halleen, F. 2001. Stam- en wortelsiektes van wingerd. VinPro Information Day. 6 June, Robertson, South Africa.

Fourie, P and Halleen, F. 2001. Stam- en wortelsiektes van wingerd. Presentation at the ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij Disease and Control Information Day. 16 August, Grabouw, South Africa.

Fourie, P and Halleen, F. 2001. Stam- en wortelsiektes van wingerd. VinPro Information Day. 27 August, Paarl, South Africa.

Fourie, P and Halleen, F. 2001. Stam- en wortelsiektes van wingerd. VinPro Information Day. 28 August, Barrydale, South Africa.

Fourie, P and Halleen, F. 2001. Stam- en wortelsiektes van wingerd. VinPro Information Day. 29 August, Worcester. South Africa.

Fourie, P and Halleen, F. 2001. Stam- en wortelsiektes van wingerd. VinPro Information Day. 4 September, Vredendal. South Africa.

Fourie, P and Halleen, F. 2001. Stam – en wortelsiektes van wingerd. VinPro Information Day. 5 September, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Fourie, P and Halleen, F, 2002. Swartvoet by wingerd, simptome en voorkoming. Presentation at the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture: Vineyard Forum Winter Meeting. 7 June, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Fourie, P and Halleen, F. 2002. Navorsing in die kwekerybedryf. Presentation at the Voor-Groenberg Nursery Day. 20 June, Wellington, South Africa.

Fourie, P and Halleen, F. 2002. Stam- en wortelsiektes van wingerd. ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij Disease and Control Information Day, 23 July, Malmesbury, South Africa.

Fourie, P and Halleen, F. 2002. Swartvoet by wingerd. VinPro Information Day, 25 September, Vredendal, South Africa.

Fourie, P and Halleen, F. 2002. Agteruitgang en terugsterwing van jong wingerd. VinPro Information Day, 25 September, Vredendal, South Africa.

Fourie, P and Halleen, F. 2002. Black goo terugsterwing by wingerd. VinPro Information Day, 25 September, Vredendal, South Africa.

Mostert, L, Crous, P W, Halleen, F, Groenewald, J Z and Gams, W. 2002. Fungal species associated with Petri disease of grapevines in South Africa. Paper presentation at the 40th Congress of the Southern African Society for Plant Pathology., 20-23 January, Dikhololo, South Africa.

Van Niekerk, J, Crous, P, Fourie, P and Halleen, F. 2002. Botryosphaeria canker and dieback of grapevines. Paper presented at the 26th National Congress of the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture. 14-15 November, Somerset West, South Africa.

Mostert, L, Crous, P W and Halleen, F. 2002. Petri disease: A complex or a disease complex? Paper presented at the 26th National Congress of the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture. Somerset-West, South Africa.

Van Niekerk, J, Crous, P W, Fourie, P H, Groenewald, J Z and Halleen, F. 2003. Characterisation and identification of Botryosphaeria species occurring on grapevines. Paper presented at the 41st Congress of the Southern African Society for Plant Pathology. 19-22 January, Bloemfontein, South Africa.

Halleen, F, Crous, P W and Groenewald, J Z. 2003. ITS and ß-tubulin phylogeny of Cylindrocarpon spp. associated with black foot disease of grapevine. Paper presented at the 3rd International Workshop on Grapevine Trunk Diseases. 1-2 February, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Halleen, F, Crous, P W and Groenewald, J Z. 2003. ITS and ß-tubulin phylogeny of Cylindrocarpon spp. associated with black foot disease of grapevine. Paper presented at the 8th International Congress of the International Society for Plant Pathology. 3-7 February, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Van Niekerk, J M, Halleen, F, Crous, P W, Groenewald, J Z and Fourie. P H. 2003. Botryosphaeria canker and dieback of grapevines. 8th International Congress of the International Society for Plant Pathology. 3-7 February, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Van Niekerk, J M, Halleen, F, Crous, P W , Groenewald, J Z and Fourie, P H. 2003. Reassessment of Phomopsis species occurring on grapevines.

Halleen F. 2003. Voorkoms, simptome en beheer van die wingerdsiektes witroes, tandpyn, streepvlek, swartvoet en black goo. Modular Course in Table Grape Cultivation. Elsenburg Agricultural College and ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij. De Doorns, South Africa.

Fourie, P and Halleen, F. 2004. Grapevine trunk diseases in South Africa. Coonawarra Grape Growers Association: Seminar on Grapevine Diseases. 5 February, Coonawarra, Australia.

Halleen, F, Fourie, P H and Crous, P W. 2004. Control of black foot disease in grapevine nurseries. Paper presented at the 3rd Australasian Soil borne Diseases Symposium. 8-11 February, Across Valley, Australia.

Van Niekerk, J M, Halleen, F, Crous, P W, Groenewald, J Z and Fourie, P H. 2004. Identification and characterisation of Phomopsis species occurring on grapevines. 42nd Congress of the Southern African Society for Plant Pathology. 18-21 January, Winterton, South Africa.

Halleen, F, Schroers, H J, Fourie, P H and Crous, P W. 2005. Fungi associated with black foot disease in South African vineyards and grapevine nurseries. Paper presented at the 4th International Workshop on Grapevine Trunk Diseases. 20-21 January, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Halleen, F, Groenewald, J Z, Farr, D F, Fourie, P H and Crous, P W. 2005. Phomopsis on grapevines: Characterisation and pathogenicity. Paper presented at the 4th International Workshop on Grapevine Trunk Diseases. 20-21 January, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Van Niekerk, J M, Halleen, F, Crous, P W, Groenewald, J Z and Fourie, P H. 2005. Characterisation and pathogenicity of Botryosphaeria species occurring on grapevines. Paper presented at the 4th International Workshop on Grapevine Trunk Diseases. 20-21 January, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Halleen, F, Mostert, L and Crous, P W. 2005. Pathogenicity of newly described Phaeoacremonium species isolated from grapevines. Paper presented at the 4th International Workshop on Grapevine Trunk Diseases. 20-21 January, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Halleen, F, Schroers, H J, Fourie, P H and Crous, P W. 2005. Fungi associated with black foot disease in South African vineyards and grapevine nurseries. Paper presented at the 43rd Congress of the Southern African Society for Plant Pathology, 23-26 January, Hartenbos, South Africa.

Article
Fourie, P H, Halleen, F, Groenewald, M, Crous, P W. 2000. Black goo decline of grapevine: current understanding of this mysterious disease, WineLand, Mnth Aug (p. 93-96)

Fourie, P H, Halleen, F. 2001. Diagnose van swamsiektes en hul betrokkenheid by terugsterwing van jong wingerd, WineLand, Mnth Dec (p. 102-107)

Van Niekerk, J M, Crous, P W, Groenewald, J Z. 2001. Characterisation and identification of Botryosphaeria species occuring on grapevines, South African Journal of Science, v. 99 (p. 2-3)

Fourie, P H, Halleen, F. 2002. Investigation of the occurrence of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora in canes of rootstock mother vines, Australasian Plant Pathology, v. 31 (4) (p. 425-426)

Mostert, L, Crous, P W, Halleen, F, Groenewald, J Z, Gams, W. 2002. Fungal species associated with Petri disease of grapevines in South Africa, Journal of Plant Science, v. 98 (p. 16-17)

Van Niekerk, J M, Crous, P W, Groenewald, J Z, Fourie, P H, Halleen, F. 2002. Botryosphaeria canker and dieback of grapevines, WineLand, Mnth Sep (p. 111-115)

Van Niekerk, J M, Crous, P W, Groenewald, J Z, Fourie, P H, Halleen, F. 2004. DNA phylogeny and morphological characterisation of Botryosphaeria species occurring on grapevines, Mycologia, v. 96 (4) (p. 781-798)

Van Niekerk, J M, Crous, P W, Groenewald, J Z, Fourie, P H, Halleen, F, Farr, D F. 2005. Reassessment of Phomopsis species on grapevine, Australasian Plant Pathology, v. 34 (1) (p. 27-3)

FinalReport.pdf

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