Investigation of the endophytic occurrence of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora in rootstock mother blocks

Project Number
WW 06-15

Project title
Investigation of the endophytic occurrence of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora in rootstock mother blocks

Project leader
Fourie, P H

Team members
Halleen, F

Project description
Phaeomoniella chlamydospora is frequently isolated from grafted rootstock in grapevine nurseries and vineyards. This fungus is associated with black goo grapevine decline that causes slow dieback of grapevines once these vines were subjected to any stress situation. Phaeomoniella chlamydospora is also in part responsible for poor callus and take percentages of grafted vines in nurseries. Despite the increasing importance of this disease, the infection pathway of the causal organism is still unknown. The aim of this study is to determine whether this fungus occurs endophytically in rootstock mother blocks. During the 1999/2000 report year, two rootstock cultivars on KWV’s Grondves farm in Stellenbosch were monitored for the occurrence of this fungus. It occurred sporadically at very low frequencies in the sampled material. Despite this indication of the endophytic nature of P. chlamydospora, it was decided that rootstock mother blocks, contaminated by this pathogen, should be monitored. A better understanding of the biology of this elusive pathogen could thus be envisaged.

A total of 5376 isolations were made from 168 shoots that were sampled at monthly intervals from the selected 101-14 Mgt and Richter 110 plants. Phaeomoniella chlamydospora was isolated from two 101-14 Mgt shoots during the November sampling and from none of the Richter 110 shoots at any of the stages. Given the very low frequency of P. chlamydospora in the one-year-old canes, it was postulated that these fungi might spread through the one-year-old wood by means of the very small conidia or conidial buds that it supposedly formed in established infection in two-year and older wood.

It is recommended that this project be prolonged for one additional season to allow an extensive survey of the occurrence of the black goo causing fungi (P. chlamydospora and Phaeoacremonium spp.) in rootstock mother blocks in South Africa. Such a survey would provide invaluable information as to the management and biology of this disease.

Presentation(s)
Fourie, P H and Halleen, F. 2000. Lesse geleer uit diagnostiese dienste te Nietvoorbij. South African Society for Enology and Viticulture Short Course, August, Goudini.

Fourie, P H and Halleen, F. 2001. Field observations of black goo decline and black foot disease of grapevine. Paper presented at the 39th Congress of the South African Society for Plant Pathology, January, Nelspruit.

Fourie, P H and Halleen, F. 2001. Black goo and swartvoet. Vine Improvement Association’s Advanced Nursery Course. 25 April, Paarl, South Africa.

Fourie, P H and Halleen, F. 2001. Stam-en wortelsiektes van wingerd. VinPro and Winetech Little Karoo Vineyard Block Competition Farmers’ Day, 30 May, Calitzdorp.

Fourie, P H and Halleen, F. 2001. Stam- en wortelsiektes van wingerd. VinPro Information Day, 6 June, Robertson.

Fourie, P H and Halleen, F. 2001. Stam- en wortelsiektes van wingerd. VinPro Information Day, 27 August, Paarl.

Fourie, P H and Halleen, F. 2001. Stam- en wortelsiektes van wingerd. VinPro Information Day, 28 August, Barrydale.

Fourie, P H and Halleen, F. 2001. Stam- en wortelsiektes van wingerd. VinPro Information Day, 29 August, Worcester.

Fourie, P H and Halleen, F. 2001. Stam- en wortelsiektes van wingerd. VinPro Information Day, 4 September, Vredenal.

Fourie, P H and Halleen, F. 2001. Stam- en wortelsiektes van wingerd. VinPro Information Day, 5 September, Stellenbosch.

Fourie, P H and Halleen, F. 2001. Field and diagnostic observations of grapevine decline in South Africa. Paper presented a the 11th Congress of the Mediterranean Phytopathological Union and 3rd Congress of the Sociedade Portuguesa de Fitopatologia. 17-20 September, Evora, Portugal.

Fourie, P H and Halleen, F. 2001. Grapevine decline in South Africa with specific reference to black goo decline and black foot disease. Paper presented at the 13th Biennial Conference of the APPS. 24-27 September Cairns.

Fourie, P H and Halleen, F. 2001. Current understanding of black goo decline and black foot disease of grapevine. Paper presented at the 25th National Congress of the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture. 15-16 November, Somerset West, South Africa.

Fourie, P H and Halleen, F. 2002. Proactive measures in nurseries to control black goo decline in grapevines. Paper presented at the 40th Congress of the Southern African Society for Plant Pathology. 20-23 January, Brits, South Africa.

Fourie, P H and Halleen, F. 2001. Die rol van ‘black goo’ en swartvoetsiekte by terugsterwing van wingerd. August, Upington, South Africa.

Fourie, P H and Halleen, F. 2001. Die rol van ‘black goo’ en swartvoetsiekte by terugsterwing van wingerd. August, Grabouw, South Africa.

Fourie, P H and Halleen, F. 2001. Stam- en wortelsiektes van wingerd. Presentation at the ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij Disease and Pest Management Symposium, 16 August, Grabouw, South Africa.

Fourie, P H and Halleen, F. 2001. Effect of chemical, biological and hot water treatments on the occurrence of phaeomoniella chlamydospora and Phaeoacremonium spp. in grapevine rootstocks. Paper presented at the 2nd International Workshop on Grapevine Trunk Diseases. 14-15 September, Lisbon, Portugal.

Fourie, P H and Halleen, F. 2002. Black goo simptome, voorkoming en bestryding. Presentation at the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture: Vineyard Forum, Winter Meeting, 7 June.

Fourie, P H and Halleen, F. 2002. Navorsing in die kwekerybedryf. Presentation at the Voor-Groenberg Nursery Information Day. 7 June.

Fourie, P H and Halleen, F. 2002. Fungi associated with grapevine wood, root and trunk diseases: a summary of the 1999-2000 results from the diagnostic services at ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij. Paper presented at the 2nd International Congress of the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture, 8-10 November, Cape Town, South Africa.

Article
Ferreira, J H S, Van Wyk, P H S, Calitz, F J. 1999. Slow dieback of grapevines in South Africa: Stress- elated predisposition of young vines for infection by Phaeoacremonium chlamydospora, South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture, v. 20 (2) (p. 43-46)

Fourie, P H, Halleen, F, Groenewald, M, Crous, P W. 2000. Black goo decline of grapevine: current understanding of this mysterious disease, WineLand, Mnth Aug (p. 93-96)

Fourie, P H, Halleen, F. 2002. Control measures for black goo and black foot of grapevine: preliminary results, WineLand, Mnth Jan (p. 117-119)

FinalReport.pdf

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