Influence of light and temperature at the vine and bunch level on growth and ripening of Sauvignon blanc berries

Project Number
WW CH 10-01

Project title
Influence of light and temperature at the vine and bunch level on growth and ripening of Sauvignon blanc berries

Project leader
Vivier, M

Institution
Stellenbosch University. Department of Viticulture and Oenology

Team members
Hunter, J J
Nieuwoudt, H H
Strever, A E

Project description
The effect of light and temperature on the evolution of berry growth, composition and colour has been studied world wide for a number of white and red cultivars. Despite these studies, there is still a great deal of uncertainty regarding the effect of these climatic parameters on berry ripening and colour evolution.

The complexity of the influence of both light and temperature on Sauvignon berry ripening has been observed in an industry related project conducted at the Department of Viticulture and Enology, Stellenbosch University in collaboration with Distell. Sauvignon blanc berry ripening and in particular, colour evolution has been monitored for the 2008 – 2009 growing season for a network of plots in the Coastal region of South Africa. Berry colour was measured using the Dyostem instrument which measures berry tint angle. This instrument has been used world wide in the wine industry for the last three years to measure berry colour as an indicator of berry ripeness level and harvest potentiality for white cultivars. Results from the research at Stellenbosch have raised a number of valid scientific questions relating to berry colour evolution (green to yellow) for the white cultivars. In addition, recent results obtained on white cultivars using the evolution of the berry colour to determine the level of ripening in relation to the style of wine (pyrazine and / or thiols aromatic character of wines) are promising.

The loss of green colour in senescent leaves and ripening fruit is a natural phenomenon and is mainly due to chlorophyll breakdown. Chlorophyll degradation is a symptom of transition of chloroplasts to gerontoplasts (Parthier, 1988) which are a senescence specific form of plastids. According to literature, the yellowing of senescente leaves and fruits is due to unmasking and partial retention of carotenoids rather than to the new synthesis of yellow pigments that occurs when chloroplasts differentiate into chromoplasts).

On the other hand, the presence of carotenoids in grape berries has been confirmed by numerous authors. The predominant carotenoids present in berries have been identified as carotene and xanthophylls. There are many parameters that can affect the concentration and the biosynthesis of carotenoids and xanthophylls. These parameters include the cultivars themselves, the climate and the canopy management.

Of all the questions, the most important and relevant concerns light and temperature thresholds related to the limit of white cultivar functioning and ripening. The aim of this project is therefore to generate fundamental knowledge on the effect of temperature and light on Sauvignon blanc berry ripening and colour evolution. This project will therefore determine thresholds in terms of optimum light and temperature levels for Sauvignon blanc berry ripening and colour evolution. In addition, a comprehensive overview of all the pertinent chemical parameters playing a role in berry ripening will be obtained. Essentially, this project therefore addresses the physiology and biochemistry of berry colour evolution.

The main objectives of the first year of the project are to identify a suitable vineyard, apply the appropriate light and temperature treatments and take bunch samples and perform chemical analyses.

Poster(s)
Alexandersson, E, Lashbrooke, J G, Young, P R, Jacobson, D, Kraeva-Deloire, E, Deloire, A and Vivier, M. 2010. Investigating the effects of light intensity on berry development in a model vineyard. Poster presented at the 10th International Conference on Grapevine Breeding and Genetics. 1-5 August, New York, United States.

Deloire, A, Coetzee, Z, Suklje, K, Lisja, K, Brand, J and Muller, N. 2012 Manipulating Sauvignon blanc wine styles in South Africa from a vineyard perspective. Poster presented at the 9th International Terroir Conference. 25-29 June, Dijon, France.

Presentation(s)
Deloire, A J, Coetzee, C, Proper, H, Coetzee, Z and Du Toit, W. 2010. Effect of bunch microclimates on the berry temperature evolution in the cool climate of the Western Cape: Consequences on the Sauvignon blanc style of wine. Paper presented at the 32nd National Congress of the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture. 18-19 November, Somerset West, South Africa.

Coetzee, C, Van Wyngaard, E and Du Toit, W J. 2011. Overview of Sauvignon blanc aroma compounds. Presentation at the Winetech Information Day. October, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Deloire, A, Habets, I, Botes, M P, Malherbe, S, Louw, L, Coetzee, Z A, Suklje, K, Coetzee, C, Du Toit, W J, Brand, J and Muller, M. 2011. How to predict a harvest date in relation with a desired style of wine for Sauvignon blanc. Presentation at the Winetech Information Day. October, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Deloire, A and Coetzee, Z. 2011. Determining with cultivar styles using berry colour evolution. Paper presented at the 3rd International Symposium on Tropical Wine. 12-18 November, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Deloire, A. 2011. To set the scene: Short introduction to berry composition and ripening. Winetech Information Day: Berry Ripening and Wine Style. University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Deloire, A and Coetzee, Z. 2012. Determining white cultivar styles using berry colour evolution. Paper presented at the Wine Flavour 101 Workshop D: Impact of Vineyard Management Practices on Wine Composition. 10 May, University of California Davis, United States.

Deloire, A and Coetzee, Z. 2012. Determining white cultivar styles using berry colour evolution. Presentation to E & J Gallo. 11 May, Modesto, California, United States.

Young, P R, Alexandersson, E, Jacobson, D, Lashbrooke, J, Eyeghe-Bickong, H, Coetzee, Z, Coetzee, C, Kritzinger, E, Du Toit, W J, Deloire, A and Vivier, M A. 2012. Profiling of carotenoid metabolism and quality parameters in grapes and wines from a model vineyard where the microclimate of the developing bunches has been altered. Paper presented at the MacroWine 2012 Conference. 18-21 June, Bordeaux, France.

Deloire, A, Suklje, K, Coetzee, Z, Lisjak, K, Brandt, J and Muller, N. 2012 Manipulating Sauvignon blanc wine styles in South Africa from a vineyard perspective. Paper presented at the 34th National Congress of the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture. 14-16 November, Somerset West, South Africa.

Young, P R, Alexandersson, E, Jacobson, D, Lashbrooke, J, Coetzee, Z and Deloire, A. 2012. The molecular and metabolite profiling of grapevine berries in a model vineyard where the microclimate has been altered. Paper presented at the 38th South African Association of Botany Conference. 15-18 January, Pretoria, South Africa.

Vivier, M, Young, P R, Alexandersson, E, Jacobson, D, Lashbrooke, J, Coetzee, Z and Deloire, A. 2012. The molecular response of grapevine berries to an altered microclimate: The effect of leaf removal sunlight exposure in the bunch zone on the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. Paper presented at the South African Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Federation of African Societies of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Congress. 29 January – 1 February, Drakensberg, South Africa.

Deloire, A, Coetzee, Z, Suklje, K, Lisjak, K, Antalic, G and Brandt, J. 2013. Effect of canopy manipulation on abiotic factors and grape and wine composition of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc. Paper presented at the 9th International Symposium for Grapevine Physiology and Biotechnology. 21-23 April, Antofagasta, Chile.

Coetzee, Z. 2013. Manipulations and monitoring of berry ripening in South Africa. Presentation to the Laimburg Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry. 7 October.

Article
Deloire, A. 2011. New method to determine optimal ripeness for white wine styles, Practical Winery and Vineyard, v. 34 (1) (p. 75-79)
Article.pdf

Deloire, A. 2011. Berry colour evaluation. A new method to determine optimal ripeness for different styles of white wines, WineLand, Mnth May (p. 125-128)

Deloire, A. 2011. Berry colour evolution: A new method to determine optimal ripeness for different styles of white wines, Wynboer Technical Yearbook, (p. 125-128)
Article.pdf

Suklje, K, Lisjak, K, Basa Cesnik, H, Janes, L, Vanzo, A, Du Toit, W, Coetzee, Z, Deloire, A. 2012. Classification of grape berries according to diameter and total soluble solids to study the effect of light and temperature on methoxypyrazine, glutathione, and hydroxycinnamate evolution during ripening of Sauvignon blanc (Vitis vinifera L.) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Mnth Sep v. 60 (37) (p. 9454-9461)

Suklje, K, Coetzee, Z, Lisjak, K, Deloire, A. 2013. The effect of leave area to yield ratio on secondary metabolites in grapes and wines of Vitis Vinifera L cv Sauvignon blanc, Journal International des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin, v. 47 (2) (p. 83-97)
Article.pdf

Suklje, K, Lisjak, K, Basa Cesnik, H, Janes, L, Vanzo, A, Du Toit, W, Coetzee, A, Deloire, A. 2013. Methoxypyrazines and greenness in wines: Myth or reality? A few perspectives, WineLand, Mnth May (p. 78-83)

Suklje, K, Lisjak, K, Basa Cesnik, H, Janes, L, Vanzo, A, Du Toit, W, Coetzee, A, Deloire, A. 2013. Methoxypyrazines and greenness in wines: Myth or reality? A few perspectives, Wynboer Technical Yearbook, (p. 102-107)
Article.pdf

Suklje, K, Antalick, G, Coetzee, Z, Schmidtke, L, Basa Cesnik, H, Brandt, J, Du Toit, W, Lisjak, K, Deloire, A. 2014. Effects of leaf removal and ultraviolet radiation in the vineyard on the composition and sensory perception of Sauvignon blanc (Vitis vinifera L. cv.) wine, Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, v. 20 (2) (p. 223-233)
Article.pdf

Suklje, K, Grobler, N, Coetzee, Z, Lisjak, K, Deloire, A. 2014. Manipulating light in the fruit zone improves wine quality, Practical Winery and Vineyard, Mnth January (p. 29-33)
Article.pdf

Suklje, K, Grobler, N, Coetzee, Z, Lisjak, K, Deloire, A. 2014. Manipulating light in the fruit zone improves wine quality, Wines and Vines, v. 95 (1A) (p. 27-34)
Article.pdf

Dissertation
Suklje, K. 2014. Influence of viticultural practice on dynamics of some secondary metabolites in grapes of grapevine variety Sauvignon blanc (Vitis vinifera L. cv.). PhD. Ljubljana,

FinalReport.pdf-MA7
FinalReport.pdf-MA7-Addendum

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