Improving Pruning Wound Protection Against Trunk Disease Pathogens


Project Number
US PP 01 2009

Project title
Improving pruning wound protection against trunk disease pathogens

Project leader
Mostert, L

Institution
University of Stellenbosch. Department of Plant Pathology

Team members
Halleen, F
Fourie, P H
Stander, M
De Beer, A
Mutawila, C
Shubane, A
Vermeulen, C
Marais, J

Project description
Grapevine trunk diseases compromise the sustainability of viticulture. It has also been proven that pruning wounds serve as the primary ports of infection of grapevines by trunk pathogens. The role of desuckering wounds in spring time as portals for trunk disease pathogens is uncertain. Although some chemicals can protect wounds it has also been shown that such protection is short lived. Biological control offers more sustainable protection of pruning wounds. Two Trichoderma atroviride isolates USPP-T1 and USPP-T2, which were obtained and evaluated in the Winetech- and DFPT-funded research project USPP 04-2004, proved to be very effective wound protectants. USPP 04-2004 will be concluded by December 2009. In order to make USPP-T1 and USPP-T2 available to grape producers to effectively protect pruning wounds, further research to understand the mechanism of control, formulation of the product and best application practices is required.

The objectives are:
1. Improve the practical application of Trichoderma
1.1. To determine the best formulation of the Trichoderma product.
1.2. To determine the best time and method of application.
2. Establish the role of desuckering wounds as portals for trunk disease infections
2.1. Develop a sampling strategy for trunk disease pathogens from desuckering wounds.
2.2. Establish the role of desuckering wounds as ports of entry for trunk pathogens.
2.3. Field application of desuckering wound protectants with tractor spraying. This objective will be dependent on the outcome of B2.
2.4. Field application of carbendazim and carbendazim-resistant Trichoderma formulation with tractor spraying.
3. Investigate the host-pathogen-Trichoderma interactions
3.1. To investigate the secondary metabolites secreted by T. atroviride and T. harzianum and their effect on trunk disease pathogens.
3.2. Antifungal assays will be conducted with the isolated secondary metabolites.
3.3. To determine the grapevine callus host resistance response to secondary metabolites and Trichoderma species.
3.4. To determine the grapevine host resistance response to secondary metabolites and infection by T. atroviride and T. harzianum.
3.5. The histological wound response in grapevine following infection by T. atroviride and T. harzianum

Poster(s)
Mutawila, C, Slabbert, K, Halleen, F and Mostert, L. 2011. Production of fungicide resistant Thricoderma strains by mutagenesis. Poster presented at the 47th Congress of the South African Society of Plant Pathology. Kruger National Park, South Africa.

Presentation(s)
Mutawila, C, Halleen, F, Fourie, P H and Mostert, L. 2011. Biological control of grapevine trunk disease pathogen infection of pruning wounds with Trichoderma species. Paper presented at the 1st Symposium on Bio-control of Grapevine Disease. 24-27 May, Toulouse, France.

Mutawila, C, Halleen, F and Mostert, L. 2010. Optimisation of the time of application of Trichoderma bio-control agents for grapevine pruning protection. Paper presented at the 19th Working Group Biological Control of Fungal and Bacterial Plant Pathogens. 24-27 June, Riems, France.

Mutawila, C, Stander, C, De Beer, A, Vivier, M, Halleen, F F and Mostert, L. 2012. Response of Vitis vinifera cell cultures by culture filtrate of Eutypa lata and Trichoderma atroviride: Expression of defence related genes. Paper presented at the 8th International Workshop on Grapevine Trunk Diseases. 18-21 June, Valencia, Spain.

Makatini, G, Mutawila, C, Halleen, F and Mostert, L. 2012. Grapevine trunk disease pathogens associated with sucker or spring wounds in South African vineyards. Paper presented at the 8th International Workshop of Grapevine Trunk Diseases. 18-21 June, Valencia, Spain.

Mutawila, C, Halleen, F and Mostert, L. 2012. Optimization of the time of application of Trichoderma bio-control agents for grapevine pruning wound protection from trunk pathogen infection. Paper presented at the 34th National Congress of the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture. 14-16 November, Somerset West, South Africa.

Makatini, G, Mutawila, C, Halleen, F and Mostert, L. 2012. Sucker wounds are susceptible to pathogen infection. Paper presented at the 34th National Congress of the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture. 14-16 November, Somerset West, South Africa.

Makatini, G, Mutawila, C, Halleen, F and Mostert, L. 2013. Sucker wounds are susceptible to pathogen infection. Paper presented at the 48th Congress of the Southern African Society for Plant Pathology. 20-24 January, Bela-Bela, South Africa.

Mutawila, C, Stander, C, Halleen, F and Mostert, L. 2013. Expression analysis of defence-related genes in Vitis vinifera cell cultures after elicitation by culture filtrate of Eutypa lata and Trichoderma atroviride. Paper presented at 8th Congress of the Southern African Society for Plant Pathology. 20-24 January, Bela-Bela, South Africa.

Makatini, G, Mutawila, C, Halleen, F and Mostert, L. 2013. Grapevine trunk pathogens associated with sucker or spring wounds in South African vineyards. Paper presented at the 48th Congress of the Southern African Society for Plant Pathology. 20-24 January, Bela-Bela, South Africa.

Mutawila, C, Halleen, F and Mostert, L. 2013. The application of Trichoderma on grapevine pruning wounds. Presentation at the Winetech VinPro Information Day. 18 April, Simondium, South Africa.

Mostert, L, Mutawila, C and Halleen, F. 2013. Improving wound protection against trunk disease pathogens. Paper presented at the 35th South African Society for Enology and Viticulture Conference. 14-16 November, Somerset West, South Africa.

Makatini, G, Halleen, F and Mostert, L. 2013. Susceptibility of grapevine sucker wounds to trunk diseases. Paper presented at the 35th South African Society for Enology and Viticulture Conference. 14-16 November, Somerset West, South Africa.

Article
Mutawila, C, Fourie, P H, Halleen, F, Mostert, L. 2011. Grapevine cultivar variation to pruning wound by Trichondema species against trunk pathogens, Phytopathologia Mediterranea, (p. s264-276)

Mutawila, C, Mostert, L, Halleen, F, Fourie, P H. 2011. What is Trichoderma? WineLand, Mnth Jul (p. 93-94)

Mutawila, C, Mostert, L, Halleen, F, Fourie, P H. 2011. An overview of grapevine pruning wound protection in South Africa, WineLand, Mnth Jun (p. 90-92)

Mutawila, C, Fourie, P H, Halleen, F, Mostert, L. 2012. Kolonisering van Cabernet Sauvignon en Sauvignon blanc snoeiwonde deur Eutypa lata en Phaeomoniella chlamydospora in die teenwoordigheid en afwesigheid van die bio-beheeragent Trichoderma harzianum, WineLand, Mnth Aug (p. 88-91)

Mutawila, C, Halleen, F, Mostert, L. 2016. Optimisation of time of application of Trichoderma biocontrol agents for protection of grapevine pruning wounds, Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, v. 22 (2) (p. 279-287)
Article.pdf

Paper
Mutawila, C, Halleen, F, Mostert, L. 2012. Optimising of the time of application of Trichoderma bio-control agents for grapevine pruning wound protection, IN: Pertot, I (ed). Proceedings of the IOBC Conference on Biological Control: IOBC/WPRS Working Group Biological Control of Fungal and Bacterial Plant Pathogens. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin, Mnth Mar v. 78 24-27 June 2012, France.
Article.pdf

FinalReport.pdf

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