Evaluation of the Antioxidant Potential of the Major South African Red and White Wines


Project Number
270028

Project Title
Evaluation of the antioxidant potential of the major South African red and white wines

Project Leader
Joubert, E

Team Members
Marais, J
Redelinghuys, H E

Project Description
The aim of this project is to determine the antioxidant potential of the major South African red and white wines as affected by cultivar, in bottle ageing and production area. The free radical scavenging activity of South African red and white cultivar wines was determined using the ABTS radical cation and the DPPH radical scavenging assays. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation by these wines was tested in a microsomal system used as a membrane model of biological relevance. The antioxidant activity of red wine as radical scavenger was much higher than that of white wine on an as is basis, as well as at the same total phenol content. This indicated not only that the total phenol content, but also the type and/or concentration of individual polyphenols present in red wines, is more effective than that of white wines. The total antioxidant activity of Ruby Cabernet wines was lower than that of other red cultivar wines, in spite of the highest monomeric anthocyanin content, while Chardonnay and Chenin blanc wines had the highest and lowest total antioxidant activity of white cultivar wines respectively. The antioxidant activity of both red and white wines correlated (P < 0.001) with their total phenol content. The main phenolic groups correlating (P < 0.001) with antioxidant activity were flavanols for red wines and tartaric acid esters for white wines. Anthocyanin content did not correlate with free radical scavenging activity of the red wines. Canonical discriminant analysis aided differentiation of red and white cultivar wines on the basis of parameters for phenolic composition, as well as antioxidant activity.

Inhibition of microsomal lipid peroxidation showed broadly the same pattern than the free radical scavenging assays, with Ruby Cabernet performing the poorest inhibition of the red cultivar wines. Similar to the free radical scavenging assays, the anthocyanin content did not correlate with inhibition of lipid peroxidation. At equal polyphenol concentration, the red wine (Pinotage) was more potent as inhibitor of lipid peroxidation than the white wine (Chardonnay). This effect will be even more enhanced on an ‘as-is’ basis.

No differentiation between wines on the basis of production area was possible. This is attributed to large variation within cultivars due to external factors. Ageing and analyses of these wines were carried out as planned.

Poster(s)
De Beer, D, Joubert, E, Gelderblom, W C A and Manley, M. 2001. Antioxidant activity of South African red and white wines: Inhibition of microsomal lipid peroxidation. Poster presented at the 25th National Congress of the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture. 15-16 November, Somerset West, South Africa.

De Beer, D, Joubert, E, Gelderblom, W C A and Manley, M. 2001. Antioxidant activity of South African red and white wines: Inhibition of microsomal lipid peroxidation. Poster presented at the 16th SAAFost International Congress and Exhibition: Food Renaissance for Africa. 10-12 September, Durban, South Africa.

De Beer, D, Waterhouse, A L, Joubert, E, Marais, J and Manley, M. 2003. Standardization of wine analysis: Sample management to prevent loss of phenolic compounds. Poster presented at the 27th National Congress of the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture. 5-7 November, Somerset West, South Africa

De Beer, D, Joubert, E, Marais, J, Van Schalkwyk, D and Manley, M. 2003. The effect of climate and vine management systems on the phenolic composition and total antioxidant capacity of Pinotage wines: Preliminary results. Poster presented at the 27th National Congress of the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture. 5-7 November, Somerset West, South Africa

De Beer, D, Joubert, E, Marais, J, Van Schalkwyk, D and Manley, M. 2003. The effect of climate and vine management systems on the phenolic composition and total antioxidant capacity of Pinotage wines: Preliminary results. Poster presented at the 17th SAAFoST International Congress. 1-4 September, Pretoria, South Africa

De Beer, D, Joubert, E, Gelderblom, W C A and Manley, M. 2003. Bottle maturation of red and white wines: Changes in phenolic composition and antioxidant activity. Poster presented at the 17th SAAFoST International Congress. 1-4 September, Pretoria, South Africa.

De Beer, D, Joubert, E, Marais, J and Manley, M. 2004. Contribution of phenolic compounds to the total antioxidant capacity of Pinotage wine. Poster presented at the 22nd International Conference on Polyphenols. 25-28 August, Helsinki, Finland.

De Beer, D, Joubert, E, Marais J and Manley, M. 2005. Contribution of phenolic compounds to the total antioxidant capacity of Pinotage wine. Poster presented at the 18th SAAFoST International Congress. 5-8 September, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Presentation(s)
De Beer, D, Joubert, E, Gelderblom, W C A and Manley, M. 2001. The effect of accelerated bottle ageing on the antioxidant activity of red and white wines. Paper presented at the 25th National Congress of the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture. 15-16 November, Somerset West, South Africa.

De Beer, D, Joubert, E, Gelderblom, W C A and Manley, M. 2001. Comparison of the free radical scavenging activities of South African red and white wines. Paper presented at the 16th SAAFost International Congress. 10-12 September, Durban, South Africa.

De Beer, D, Joubert, E, Van Schalkwyk, D, Marais, J, Gelderblom, W C A and Manley, M. 2003. Antioxidant capacity of wine: Effect of viticultural and enological practices on phenolic composition and quality. Paper presented at the 17th SAAFost International Congress. 1-4 September, Pretoria, South Africa

De Beer, D, Fourie, B, Joubert, E, Du Toit, W, Marais, J and Manley, M. 2003. Wood maturation of Pinotage using barrels and alternative wood products: Effect on phenolic composition and antioxidant activity. Paper presented at the 27th National Congress of the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture. 5-7 November, Somerset West, South Africa.

De Beer, D, Joubert, E, Marais, J and Manley, M. 2005. Contribution of phenolic compounds to the total antioxidant capacity of Pinotage wine. Paper presented at the 3rd International Congress of the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture. 7-8 November, Cape Town, South Africa

De Beer, D, Joubert, E, Marais, J and Manley, M. 2005. Contribution of phenolic compounds to the total antioxidant capacity of Pinotage wine. Paper presented at the 3rd International Congress of the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture. 7-8 November, Cape Town, South Africa.

De Beer, D, Joubert, E, Marais, J and Manley, M. 2005. Unravelling the total antioxidant capacity of Pinotage wines – the contribution of phenolic compounds and the role of synergism. Paper presented at International Congress on Health and Wine: Vindaba 2005. 13-16 September, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

De Beer, D, Joubert, E, Marais, J and Manley, M. 2005. Guidelines for the production of Pinotage wine with optimal antioxidant capacity while retaining sensory quality. Paper presented at the 3rd International Congress of the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture. 7-8 November, Cape Town, South Africa.

Article
De Beer, D E, Joubert, E, Gelderblom, W C A, Manley, M. 2002. Phenolic compounds a review of their possible role in vivo antioxidants of wine, South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture, v. 23 (2) (p. 48-61)

De Beer, D E, Joubert, E, Gelderblom, W C A, Manley, M. 2003. Antioxidant activity of South African red and white cultivar wines: free radical scavenging, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51 (4) (p. 902-909)

De Beer, D E, Harbertson, J F, Kilmartin, P A, Roginsky, V, Barsukova, T, Adams, D O, Waterhouse, A L. 2004. Phenolics: a comparison of diverse analytical methods, American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, v. 55 (4) (p. 389-400)

De Beer, D E, Joubert, E, Gelderblom, W C A, Manley, M. 2005. Antioxidant activity of South African red and white cultivar wines selected wine phenolic compounds: Inhibition of microsomal lipid peroxidation, Food Chemistry, v. 90 (4) (p. 569-577)

De Beer, D E, Joubert, E, Gelderblom, W C A, Manley, M. 2005. Changes in the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of Pinotage, Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay and Chenin blanc wines during bottle ageing, South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture, v. 26 (1) (p. 6-15)
Article.pdf

De Beer, D E, Joubert, E, Marais, J, Manley, M. 2006. Unravelling the total antioxidant capacity of Pinotage wines: contribution of phenolic compounds, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 54 (8) (p. 2897-2905)
DOI: 10.1021/jf052766u

De Beer, D E, Joubert, E, Marais, J, Manley, M. 2006. Maceration before and during fermentation: Effect on Pinotage wine phenolic composition, total anti-oxidant capacity and objective colour parameters, South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture, v. 27 (2) (p. 137-150)
Article.pdf

De Beer, D E, Joubert, E, Marais, J, Manley, M. 2006. Climate, region and vine structure: Effect on Pinotage wine phenolic composition, total anti-oxidant capacity and colour, South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture, v. 27 (2) (p. 151-166)
Article.pdf

De Beer, D E, Joubert, E. 2006. Anti-oxidant activity of South African red and white cultivar wines, WineLand, Mnth Apr (200) (p. 62-64)

Roginsky, V, De Beer, D E, Harbertson, J F, Kilmartin, P A, Barsukova, T, Adams, D O, Waterhouse, A L. 2006. The antioxidant activity of Californian red wines does not correlate with wine age, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, v. 86 (5) (p. 834-840)

Dissertation
De Beer, D E. 2006. Antioxidant capacity of Pinotage wine as affected by viticultural and enological practices. PhD. University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Thesis
De Beer, D E. 2002. The antioxidant activity of South African wines in different test systems as affected by cultivar and ageing. MSc Agric (Viticulture) University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch.

FinalReport.pdf

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