Diagnosis, epidemiology and integrated management of trunk diseases of grapevines


Project Number
US PP 04 2004

Project title
Diagnosis, epidemiology and integrated management of trunk diseases of grapevines

Project leader
Mostert, L

Institution
University of Stellenbosch. Department of Plant Pathology

Team members
Damm, U
Halleen, F
Van Niekerk, J M
Pretorius, A
Williams, A D
De Wet, B

Project description
The relative occurrence of trunk disease causing pathogens was determined in five different wine grape producing areas. The areas surveyed were Stellenbosch, Robertson, Malmesbury, Vredendal and Upington. In each of the areas three vineyards were randomly selected and 20 grapevines in each block were sampled by cutting off the distal part of one of the arms. Isolations were made onto artificial medium from all the different wood decay symptoms observed and the occurrence of the pathogens recorded as well as the symptom types the pathogens were isolated from. In all the areas, except Upington, Cabernet Sauvignon vineyards older than 10 years were sampled. In Upington Ruby cabernet vineyards of the same age were sampled due to the unavailability of Cabernet Sauvignon vineyards. The results of the survey are currently being analysed.

The protocol for the detection of spores in vineyards was successfully developed and a Quest mechanical spore trap is currently used to trap the spores. The first season of spore detection was started at the beginning of June 2004 and will carry on until mid September 2004. The site of this trial is a Chenin blanc vineyard in the Stellenbosch area that is 18 years old and is known to have dieback problems.

Four potentially pathogenic Botryosphaeria species were tested in vitro against potential chemical pruning wound protecting agents. The results showed that benomyl (Benlate®), tebuconazole (Folicur®), prochloraz manganese chloride (Octave®), flusilazole (Olymp®) and fenarimol (Rubigan®) were the most effective fungicides. These fungicides also showed good inhibition of other important grapevine trunk disease pathogens, and will be used in subsequent in-vivo efficacy screenings.

Poster(s)
Halleen, F and Fourie, P H. 2005. Protection of grapevine pruning wounds against fungal infections. Poster presented at the 4th International Workshop on Grapevine Trunk Diseases. 20-21 January, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Van Niekerk, J M, Groenewald, J Z, Farr, D F, Fourie, P H, Halleen, F and Crous, P W. 2005. Phomopsis spp. on grapevines: Characterisation and pathogenicity. Poster presented at the 4th International Workshop on Grapevine Trunk Diseases. 20-21 January, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Bester, W and Fourie, P H. 2005. Fungicide sensitivity of selected Botryosphaeria species from grapevine. Poster presented at the Joint Congress of the South African Society of Plant Pathology, African Mycology Association and Medical Mycology in Africa. 23-26 January, Hartenbos, South Africa.

Van Niekerk, J M, Crous, P W, Groenewald, J Z, Fourie P H and Halleen, F. 2005. Characterisation and pathogenicity of Botryosphaeria species occurring on grapevines. Poster presented at the 4th International Workshop on Grapevine Trunk Diseases. 20-21 January, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Van Niekerk, J M, Halleen, F and Fourie, P H. 2006. Spore dispersal patterns of grapevine trunk disease pathogens. Poster presented at the 43rd Congress of the Southern African Society of Plant Pathology. 22-25 January, Magaliesberg, South Africa.

Bester, W, Van Niekerk, J M, Damm, U, Halleen, F, Crous, P W and Fourie, P H. 2006. Grapevine trunk disease pathogens: Symptomatology and distribution in climatically diverse table grape growing regions of South Africa. Poster presented at the 43rd Congress of the Southern African Society for Plant Pathology. 22-25 January, Magaliesberg, South Africa.

Fourie, P H and Halleen, F. 2006. The basics of managing disease complexes. Poster presented at the Cape Phomological Association Symposium. 31 May, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Mclean, T, Fourie, P H and McLeod, A. 2006. Reporter gene transformation of two grapevine trunk pathogens and a potential bio-control agent, Trichoderma harzianum. Poster presented at the 29th National Congress of the South African Society for Viticulture and Enology. 14-17 November, Somerset West, South Africa.

Kotze, C, Van Niekerk, J M, Halleen, F and Fourie, P H. 2007. In vitro antagonism of potential bio-control agents against grapevine trunk disease pathogens. Poster presented a the 45th Congress of the Southern African Society of Plant Pathology. 21-24 January, Benoni, South Africa.

Mclean, T, Fourie, P H and McLeod, A. 2007. Reporter gene transformation of two grapevine trunk pathogens and a potential bio-control agent, Trichoderma harzianum. Poster presented at the 45th Congress of the Southern African Society of Plant Pathology. 21-24 January, Benoni, South Africa.

Mutawila, C, Halleen, F, Fourie, P H and Mostert, L. 2009. Histology of host, pathogen and biological control agent interactions on grapevine pruning wounds. Poster presented at the 32nd National Congress of the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture. 11-14 November, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Mutawila, C, Halleen, F, Fourie, P H and Mostert, L. 2009. Biological control of trunk disease pathogen infections on pruning wounds with Trichoderma. Poster presented at the 32nd National Congress of the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture. 12 December, Somerset West, South Africa.

Mutawila, C, Halleen, F, Fourie, P H and Mostert, L. 2010. Evaluation of grapevine cultivar susceptibility to Trichoderma colonisation of pruning wounds. Poster presented at the 7th International Workshop on Grapevine Trunk Diseases. 17-21 January, Santa Cruz, Chile.

Presentation(s)
Van Niekerk, J M, Fourie, P H and Halleen, F. 2004. Distribution and associated symptoms of grapevine trunk pathogens in South Africa. Paper presented at the Joint International Conference on Viticultural Zoning. 5-19 November, Cape Town, South Africa.

Van Niekerk, J M, Fourie, P H, Halleen, F, Bester, W, Damm, U and Crous, P W. 2005. Enviro-spatial distribution of grapevine trunk pathogens in South Africa. Paper presented at the 4th International Workshop on Grapevine Trunk Diseases. 20-21 January, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Van Niekerk, J M, Halleen, F and Fourie, P H. 2006. Spore dispersal patterns of grapevine trunk disease pathogens. Paper presented at the 43th Congress of the Southern African Society of Plant Pathology. 22-25 January, Magaliesberg, South Africa.

Bester, W, Van Niekerk, J M, Damm, U, Halleen, F, Crous, P W and Fourie, P H. 2006. Grapevine trunk disease pathogens: Symptomatology and distribution in climatically diverse table grape growing regions of South Africa. Paper presented at the 43th Congress of the Southern African Society of Plant Pathology. 22-25 January, Magaliesberg, South Africa.

Fourie, P H and Halleen, F. 2006. The basics of managing disease complexes. Paper presented at the Cape Phomological Association Symposium. 31 May, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Mostert, L, Damm, U, Halleen, F, Fourie, P H and Crous, P W. 2006. The pathogenic and epidemiological relevance of Phaeacremonium species from grapevines and stone fruit. Paper presented at the 29th National Congress of the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture. 14-17 November, Somerset West, South Africa.

Van Niekerk, J M, Halleen, F and Fourie, P H. 2006. Grapevine pruning wound susceptibility and spore dispersal of trunk disease pathogens. Paper presented at the 29th National Congress of the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture. 14-17 November, Somerset West, South Africa.

Van Niekerk, J M, Halleen, F and Fourie, P H. 2006. Susceptibility of grapevine pruning wounds to trunk pathogen infection in South Africa. Paper presented at the 5th International Workshop on Grapevine Trunk Diseases. 11-13 September, Davis, California, United States.

Van Niekerk, J M, Halleen, F and Fourie, P H. 2006. Spore dispersal patterns of grapevine trunk pathogens in South Africa. Paper presented at the 5th International Workshop on Grapevine Trunk Diseases. 11-13 September, California, United States.

Van Niekerk, J M, Halleen, F and Fourie, P H. 2007. Temporal grapevine pruning wound susceptibility and spore dispersal patterns of trunk disease pathogens. Paper presented at the 45th Congress of the Southern African Society of Plant Pathology. 21-24 January, Benoni, South Africa.

Van Niekerk, J M, Strever, A E, Du Toit, P G, Halleen, F and Fourie, P H. 2007. Water stress predisposition of grapevines to infection by Botryosphaeriaceae trunk pathogens. Paper presented at the 45th Congress of the Southern African Society of Plant Pathology. 21-24 January, Benoni, South Africa.

Kotze, C, Van Niekerk, J M, Halleen, F and Fourie, P H. 2007. Identifying potential bio-control agents for grapevine pruning wound protection against trunk pathogen infection. Paper presented at the 5th International Table Grape Symposium. 14-16 November, Somerset West, South Africa.

Van Niekerk, J M, Strever, A E, Du Toit, P G, Halleen, F and Fourie, P H. 2007. Water stress as predisposing factor of grapevines to infection by Botryosphaeriaceae trunk pathogens. Paper presented at the 5th International Table Grape Symposium. 14-16 November, Somerset West, South Africa.

Kotze, C, Halleen, F, Mutawila, C, Mostert, L and Fourie, P H. 2008. Identifying potential bio-control agents for grapevine pruning wound protection against trunk pathogen infection. 1-3 September, Florence, Italy.

Jaspers, M V and Mostert, L. 2008. Inhibitory interactions between Trichoderma isolates and grape wood pathogens. Paper presented at the International Workshop of Grapevine Trunk Diseases. 1-3 September, Florence, Italy.

Mostert, L and Halleen, F. 2008. Taxonomy of trunk disease pathogens, what is new? Paper presented at the 9th International Congress of Plant Pathology. Torino, Italy.

Mutawila, C, Halleen, F, Fourie, P H and Mostert, L. 2009. Trichoderma protection of grapevine pruning wounds from infections of trunk disease pathogens. Paper presented at the 46th Congress of the Southern African Society for Plant Pathology. Gordon’s Bay, South Africa.

Mutawila, C, Halleen, F, Fourie, P H and Mostert, L. 2010. In-vivo growth of reporter gene transformed Trichoderma harzianum, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and Eutypa lata on the grapevine pruning wound and histology of the wood response to infection. Paper presented at the 7th International Workshop on Grapevine Trunk Diseases. 17-21 January, Santa Cruz, Chile.

Article
Van Niekerk, J M, Fourie, P H, Halleen, F. 2003. Ekonomiese impak van Eutypa terugsterwing van wingerd, WineLand, Mnth Dec (p. 78-80)

Fourie, P H, Halleen, F. 2004. Occurrence of grapevine trunk disease pathogens in rootstock mother plants, Australasian Plant Pathology, v. 33 (p. 313-315)

Halleen, F, Van Niekerk, J M, Mostert, L, Fourie, P H. 2005. Trunk disease pathogens associated with apparently healthy nursery grapevines, WineLand, Mnth Jul (191) (p. 79-81)

Halleen, F, Fourie, P H. 2005. ‘n Terugblik op die 4de internasionale werkswinkel op wingerdstamsiektes 20-21 Januarie 2005, WineLand, Mnth Jun (p. 84-85)

Halleen, F, Fourie, P H. 2005. ‘n Terugblik op die 4de internasionale werkswinkel op wingerdstamsiektes 20-21 Januarie 2005, WineLand, Mnth Jun (p. 84-85)

Halleen, F, Van Niekerk, J M, Mostert, L, Fourie, P H, Crous, P W. 2005. Trunk disease pathogens associated with apparently healthy nursery grapevines, WineLand, Mnth Jul (p. 12-14)

Mostert, L, Halleen, F, Fourie, P H, Crous, P W. 2006. A review of Phaeoacremonium species involved in Petri disease and esca of grapevines, Phytopathologia Mediterranea, v. 45 (p. S12-S29)

Van Niekerk, J M, Fourie, P H, Halleen, F, Crous, P W. 2006. Botryosphaeria spp. as grapevine trunk disease pathogens, Phytopathologia Mediterranea, v. 45 (p. s43-54)

Bester, W, Crous, P W, Fourie, P H. 2007. Evaluation of fungicides as potential grapevine pruning wound protectants against Botryosphaeria species, Australasian Plant Pathology, v. 36 (1) (p. 73-77)

Mclean, T, Fourie, P H, Mcleod, A. 2009. Reporter gene transformation of the trunk disease pathogen Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and biological agent Trichoderma harzianum, Australasian Plant Pathology, v. 38 (2) (p. 153-167)

Van Niekerk, J M, Calitz, F J, Halleen, F, Fourie, P H. 2010. Temporal spore dispersal patterns of grapevine trunk pathogens in South Africa, European Journal of Plant Pathology, v. 127 (3) (p. 375-390)

Kotze, C, Van Niekerk, J M, Mostert, L, Halleen, F, Fourie, P H. 2011. Evaluation of biocontrol agents for grapevine pruning wound protection against trunk pathogen infection, Phytopathologia Mediterranea, v. 50 (p. 247-263)

Mutawila, C, Fourie, P H, Halleen, F, Mostert, L. 2011. Histopathology study of the growth of Trichoderma harzianum, Phaemoniella chlamydospora and Eutypa lata on grapevine pruning wounds, Phytopathologia Mediterranea, v. 50 (p. 46-60)

Mutawila, C, Fourie, P H, Halleen, F, Mostert, L. 2011. Grapevine cultivar variation to pruning wound protection by Trichoderma species against trunk pathogens, Phytopathologia Mediterranea, v. 50 (p. 264-276)

Van Niekerk, J M, Bester, W, Halleen, F, Crous, P W, Fourie, P H. 2011. The distribution and symptomatology of grapevine trunk disease pathogens are influenced by climate, Phytopathologia Mediterranea, v. 50 (p. 98-111)

Van Niekerk, J M, Halleen, F, Fourie, P H. 2011. Temporal susceptibility of grapevine pruning wounds to trunk pathogen infection in South African grapevines, Phytopathologia Mediterranea, v. 50 (p. 139-150)

Van Niekerk, J M, Strever, A E, Du Toit, P G, Halleen, F, Fourie, P H. 2011. Influence of water stress on Botryosphaeriaceae disease expression in grapevines, Phytopathologia Mediterranea, v. 50 (p. S151-165)

Van Niekerk, J M, Bester, W, Halleen, F, Crous, P W, Mostert, L, Fourie, P H. 2011. The distribution and symptomatology of grapevine trunk disease pathogens are influenced by climate, Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Mnth Aug v. 5 (p. S98-111)

Dissertation
Kotze, C. 2009. Biological control of the grapevine trunk disease pathogens: Pruning wound protection. PhD (Agric) University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Thesis
Bester, W. 2006. Characterisation and management of trunk disease causing pathogens in table grapevines. MSc. University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

McLean, T. 2007. Reporter gene transformation of grapevine pathogens, Phaemoniella chlamydospora and Phomopsis viticola, and biocontrol agent, Trichoderma harzianum. MSc Agric. University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Kotze, C. 2008. Biological control of grapevine trunk disease pathogens: pruning wound protection. MSc. Univeristy of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch.

FinalReport.pdf

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