Determination of a possible viral aetiology of Shiraz disease

Project Number
WW 07-07

Project title
Determination of a possible viral aetiology of Shiraz disease

Project leader
Goszczynski, D E

Institution
ARC Plant Protection Research Institute

Team members
Goszczynski, D E
Jooste, A E C
Kasdorf, G G F

Project description
Shiraz disease (SD) is highly destructive disease of Vitis vinifera cvs. Shiraz, Merlot, Malbec and Gamay in South Africa. Canes of grapevines affected by Shiraz disease are droopy with rubbery texture, longitudinal cracks and mature unevenly. Budburst is delayed or does not occur at all. Shiraz disease affected grapevines always die within 3-5 years. The disease is easily graft-transmitted and its natural spread among grapevines in the field has been observed. These are reasons for serious concern, especially as Shiraz disease affects grapevine cultivars Shiraz and Merlot, which are used for the production of good quality red wines in South Africa.

Efficient graft transmission of Shiraz disease and effective elimination of the disease by thermotherapy and apical meristem culture in vitro, but not by hot water treatment, suggests a viral aetiology of Shiraz disease. RT-PCR of dsRNA isolated from cane shavings of 91 Shiraz disease-affected Shiraz and 32 Shiraz disease affected Merlot grapevines show that all grapevines were infected with grapevine leafroll associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) and grapevine virus A (GVA). Thus, the results strongly suggest that these two viruses are involved in the aetiology of Shiraz disease. As they are also frequently detected in Shiraz disease free grapevines, detailed analysis of genomes of GLRaV-3 and GVA associated with Shiraz disease was initiated. The work has started with GVA, as this virus is easily mechanically transmitted to herbaceous plants. The strain of GVA sharing only 78% of nucleotide sequence homology with published GVA sequence deposited in the GeneBank was found. The association of this GVA strain with Shiraz disease is currently being investigated.

Presentation(s)
Goszczynski, D E and Jooste, A E C. 2002. Molecular heterogeneity of virus associated with leafroll, corky bark and Shiraz diseases of grapevines. Presentation a the Winetech Grapevine Virus Workshop. 6 May, Simondium, South Africa

Goszczynski, D E and Jooste, A E C. 2003. Shiraz disease is transmitted by mealybug Planococcus ficus and associated with grapevine virus A. Presentation at the Winetech Virus Workshop. 5 May, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Goszczynski, D E and Jooste, A E C. 2003. Shiraz disease (SD) is transmitted by mealybug Planococcus ficus and associated with grapevine virus A (GVA). Paper presented a the 14th Meeting of the International Council for the Study of Viruses and Virus-like Diseases of the Grapevine (ICVG). 12-17 September, Bari, Italy

Goszczynski, D E and Jooste, A E C. 2003. Identification of grapevines infected with divergent variants of grapevine virus A (GVA) using variant-specific RT-PCR. Paper presented at the 14th Meeting of the International Council for the Study of Viruses and Virus-like Diseases of the Grapevine (ICVG). 12-17 September, Bari, Italy

Goszczynski, D E and Jooste, A E C. 2003. Shiraz disease (SD) is transmitted by mealybug Planococcus ficus and associated with grapevine virus A (GVA). Paper presented at the27th National Congress South African Society for Enology and Viticulture. 5-7 November, Somerset West, South Africa

Goszczynski, D E and Jooste, A E C. 2004. Do some grapevine virus A (GVA) variants multiply under control of Shiraz and Merlot, and do those able to evade anti-virus defences induce Shiraz disease? Presentation at the Winetech Grapevine Virus Workshop. 11 May, Stellenbosch, South Africa

Goszczynski, D E and Jooste, A E C. 2005. Shiraz disease – a potential threat to the South African grapevine industry. Presentation at the Winetech Grapevine Virus Workshop. 10 May, Stellenbosch, South Africa

Gosczcynski, D E. 2006. Molecular variants of grapevine virus a associated with Shiraz disease in South Africa. Paper presented at the 15th Congress of the International Council for the Study of Virus and Virus-like Diseases of the Grapevine. 3-7 April, Stellenbosch, South Africa

Article
Goszczynski, D E, Jooste, A E C. 2002. The application of single strand conformation polymorphism technique for the analysis of molecular heterogeneity of grapevine virus A, Vitis, v. 41 (p. 77-82)

Goszczynski, D E, Jooste, A E C. 2003. Identification of divergents variants of grapevine virus A, European Journal of Plant Pathology, v. 109 (4) (p. 397-403)

Goszczynski, D E, Jooste, A E C. 2003. Identification of divergent variants of grapevine virus A, European Journal of Plant Pathology, v. 109 (p. 397-403)

Goszczynski, D E, Jooste, A E C. 2003. Identification of grapevines infected with divergents variants of grapevine virus A using variant-specific RT-PCR, Journal of Virological Methods, v. 112 (1-2) (p. 157-164)

Paper
Goszczynski, D E, Jooste, A E C. 2003. Shiraz disease is transmitted by mealybug Planococcus ficus and associated grapevine virus A, IN: Proceedings of the 14th Congress of the International Council for the Study of Virus and Virus-like Diseases of the Grapevine. 12-17 September 2003, Locoronto, Italy. (p. 219) University of Bari, Locorotondo, Italy.

Goszczynski, D E, Jooste, A E C. 2003. Identification of divergent variants of grapevine virus A reveals two major groups of divergent molecular variants of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3, IN: Proceedings of the 14th Congress of the International Council for the Study of Virus and Virus-like Diseases of the Grapevine. (p. 213) University of Bair, Locoronto, Italy.

FinalReport.pdf

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