Constructing and deconstructing the wine grape cell wall


Project Number
IWBT-P 14-04

Project title
Constructing and deconstructing the wine grape cell wall

Project leader
Moore, J P

Institution
University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of AgriSciences. Institute for Wine Biotechnology

Team members
Moore, J P
Zietsman, A
Yu, G
Weiller, F
Premsagar, V

Project description
Although domesticated grapevine (Vitis vinfera) is considered the world’s most important fruit crop (OIV, 2009), limited information is available on the cell wall composition of grape berries. The importance of cell wall remodelling, biosynthesis and turnover in ripening berries has been further emphasized in recent years through transcriptomic studies. These studies have highlighted numerous cell wall genes (e.g. expansins, xyloglucanases, pectinases etc.) which correlate with distinct ripening phases indicating the critical contribution polysaccharide organization plays in grape berry development.

Berry cell walls contain a large range of very important components (e.g. RG-II, AGPs, proteins, enzymes) that are essential for wine quality. They also modulate berry quality (e.g. texture) and disease resistance. Enzymatic deconstruction of grapes during winemaking is a costly and very unpredictable process. We currently understand very little about how grape cell deconstruction occurs during winemaking, this project will provide valuable new information on the process. We wish to understand and model the ripening and deconstruction of the grape cell wall. We wish to profile the different stages of ripening and determine the corresponding cell wall architecture; as well as determine how fungal enzymes modify (i.e. deconstruct) the berry cells during fermentation.

The insights gained in this project can be used to help wine makers and the industry to process grapes more efficiently and in a cost-effective manner producing wine of better consistent quality (e.g. colour, phenolic content etc.). Development of rapid assay approaches can aid oenologists, researchers and winemakers in evaluating grape ripeness and subsequent fermentations in a cost-effective and informative manner.

Poster(s)
Gao, Y, Moore, J P, Fangel, J, Cornuault, V, Knox, J P, Willats, W G T and Vivier, M. 2014. Construction and deconstruction of the wine grape cell wall: Cultivar differences between Cabernet Sauvignon and Sauvignon blanc during winemaking. Poster presented at the 11th International Symposium on Grapevine Genetics and Breeding. 28 July – 2 August 2014, Beijing, China.

Zietsman, A, Moore, J P, Fangel, J U, Willats, W G T and Vivier, M. 2014. Evaluating the efficacy of maceration enzymes in deconstructing grape skins cv. Pinotage under winemaking conditions using cell wall profiling tools. Poster presented at 5th International Symposium on Macromolecules and Secondary Metabolites of Grapevine and Wines: MacroWine 2014. 7-10 September 2014, Stellenbosch, South Africa

Moore, J P, Fangel, J, Cornuault, V, Willats, W G T, Knox, J P and Vivier, M. 2015. Cell wall profiling of ripening wine and table grapes reveal changes in neutral and acidic ß-(1,4)-galactan epitopes. Poster presented at Gordon Conference on Plant Cell Walls. 12-17 July 2015. Boston, United States.

Gao, Y, Moore, J P, Fangel, J, Willats, W G T and Vivier, M. 2015. Deconstruction of the wine grape cell wall cv Cabernet Sauvignon during winemaking using profiling and fractionation methods. Poster presented at Gordon Conference on Plant Cell Walls. 12-17 July 2015. Boston, United States.

Moore, J P, Fangel, J U, Cornuault, V, Willats, W G T, Knox, P and Vivier, M A. 2015. Cell wall profiling of ripening wine and table grapes reveal changes in neutral and acidic ß-(1,4)-galactan epitopes. COST Action FA1106 QualityFruit 2015 Conference. 27-30 September, Lisbon, Portugal.

Gao, Y, Fangel, J U, Willats, W G T, Vivier, M A, Moore, J P. 2016.Effect of intra-vineyard ripeness variation on the efficiency of commercial enzymes on berry cell wall deconstruction under winemaking conditions. Poster presented at the 10th International Symposium on Grapevine Physiology and Biotechnology. 13-18 June, Verona, Italy.

Gao, Y, Fangel, J U, Willats, W G T, Vivier, M A, Moore, J P. 2016. Dissecting the polysaccharide-rich grape cell wall matrix for potential biomass utilisation. Poster presented at the Exploring Lignocellulose Biomass INRA. 23-24 June, Reims, France.

Gao, Y, Fangel, J U, Willats, W G T, Vivier, M A, Moore, J P. 2016. Using combinations of recombinant pure pectinases to elucidate the deconstruction of the polysaccharide-rich grape cell wall during winemaking. Poster presented at Macrowine 2016. 26-30 June, Changins (Nyon), Geneva, Switzerland.

Gao, Y, Fangel, J U, Willats, W G T, Vivier, M A, Moore, J P. 2016. Effect of intra-vineyard ripeness variation on the efficiency of commercial enzymes on berry cell wall deconstruction under winemaking conditions. Poster presented at Macrowine. 26-30 June, Changins (Nyon), Geneva, Switzerland.

Zietsman, A J J, Moore, J P, Fangel, J U, Willats, W G T, Trygg, Vivier, M A. 2016. Grape berry skin cell walls unravelled in red wine fermentations and the role of maceration enzymes. Paper presented at the 14th International Cell Wall Meeting. 12-17 June, Chania (Crete), Greece.

Presentation(s)
Moore, J P, Gao, Y, Zietsman, A, Fangel, J, Cornuault, V, Knox, J P, Willats, W G T and Vivier, M. 2014. Cell wall profiling provides insights into the genetic mechanisms underpinning cultivar specific differences in wine and table grapes. Paper presented at the 11th International Symposium on Grapevine Genetics and Breeding. 28 July – 2 August 2014, Beijing, China.

Moore, J P, Fangel, J, Cornuault, V, Willats, W G T, Knox, J P and Vivier, M. 2014. Cell wall profiling of ripening wine and table grapes reveal changes in neutral and acidic ß-(1,4)-galactan epitopes. Paper presented at 5th International Symposium on Macromolecules and Secondary Metabolites of Grapevine and Wines: MacroWine 2014. 7-11th September, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Gao, Y, Moore, J P, Fangel, J, Willats, W G T and Vivier, M. 2014. Deconstruction of the wine grape cell wall cv Cabernet Sauvignon during winemaking using profiling and fractionation methods. Paper presented at 5th International Symposium on Macromolecules and Secondary Metabolites of Grapevine and Wines: MacroWine 2014. 7-10 September 2014, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Moore, J P, Fangel, J, Cornuault, V, Willats, W G T, Knox, J P and Vivier, M. 2014. Cell wall profiling of ripening wine and table grapes reveal changes in neutral and acidic ß-(1,4)-galactans, extensins, and arabinogalactan protein epitopes. Paper presented at 3rd COST ACTION FA1106 Quality Fruit 2014. 21-24 September 2014, Crete, Greece.

Moore, J P, Zietsman, A J J, Gao, Y, Fangel, J U, Cornault, V, Knox, J P, Trygg, J, Vivier, M A. 2015. Profiling tools used to assess the ripening process and enzymatic deconstruction of grapes during winemaking reveal new information on cell wall architecture. Australian Society for Enology and Viticulture and Wine Innovation Cluster – Crush Conference. 19-20 November, Adelaide, Australia.

Gao, Y, Fangel, J U, Willats, W G T, Vivier, M A, Moore, J P. 2016. Dissecting the polysaccharide-rich grape cell wall matrix during ripening using high-throughput and fractionation methods. Paper presented at the 10th International Symposium on Grapevine Physiology and Biotechnology. 13-18 June, Verona, Italy.

Gao, Y, Fangel, J U, Willats, W G T, Vivier, M A, Moore, J P. 2016. Dissecting the polysaccharide-rich grape cell wall matrix during the winemaking process using high-throughput and fractionation methods. Paper presented at Macrowine 2016. 26-30 June, Changins (Nyon), Geneva, Switzerland.

Moore, J P, Zietsman, A. 2013. A look at grape berry cell walls: Building up and breaking down. Paper presented at the 35th International South African Society of Enology and Viticulture Conference. 13-15 November, Somerset West, South Africa.

Moore, J P, Gao, Y, Fangel, J U, Willats, W G T, Vivier, M A. 2016. Breaking down barriers: intra-vineyard ripeness variation and the efficiency of commercial enzymes on berry cell wall deconstruction during winemaking. Presented at the 38th Conference of the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture. 23-25 August, Somerset West, South Africa.

Article
Moore, J P, Fangel, J U, Willats, W G T, Vivier, M A. 2014. Pectic-ß-1,4-galactan, extensin and arabinogalactan-protein epitopes differentiate ripening stages in wine and table grape cell walls, Annals of Botany, v. 114 (6) (p. 1279-1294)
http://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcu053

Gao, Y, Fangel, J U, Willats, W G, Vivier, M A, Moore, J P. 2015. Dissecting the polysaccharide-rich grape cell wall changes during winemaking using combined high-throughput and fractionation methods, Carbohydrate Polymers, v. 133 (p. 567-577)
http://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.07.026

Zietsman, A J J, Moore, J P, Fangel, J U, Willats, W G T, Vivier, M A. 2015. Profiling the hydrolysis of isolated grape berry skin cell walls by purified enzymes, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 63 (37) (p. 8267-8274)
Article.pdf

Zietsman, A J J, Moore, J P, Fangel, J U, Willats, W G T, Trygg, J, Vivier, M A. 2015. Following the compositional changes of fresh grape skin cell walls during the fermentation process in the presence and absence of maceration enzymes, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 63 (20) (p. 2798-2810)
Article.pdf

Gao, Y, Fangel, J U, Willats, W G T, Vivier, M A, Moore, J P. 2016. Dissecting the polysaccharide-rich grape cell wall matrix using recombinant pectinases during winemaking, Carbohydrate Polymers, Mnth November v. 152 (p. 510-519)
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.05.115

Gao, Y, Fangel, J U, Willats, W G T, Vivier, M A, Moore, J P. 2016. Effect of commercial enzymes on berry cell wall deconstruction in the context of intravineyard ripeness variation under winemaking conditions, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Mnth May v. 64 (19) (p. 3862-3872)
Article.pdf

Zietsman, A J J, Vivier, M A, Moore, J P. 2016. Investigating wine grape cell walls, WineLand, Mnth March (p. 80-83)
http://www.wineland.co.za/investigating-grapevine-cell-walls/

 

 

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