Climate Analysis, Remote/Proximal Sensing and GIS Data Central to SA Vineyards of the Future


Project Number
AS DVO 09

Project Title
Climate analysis, remote/proximal sensing and GIS data central to SA vineyards of the future

Project Leader
Strever, A E

Institution
University of Stellenbosch. Department of AgriSciences. Department of Viticulture and Oenology

Team Members
Southey, T
Moffat, E

Completion date
2018

Project Description
Climate data analysis for the wine industry is a priority and high quality data is crucial. Recently a highly prioritised request was made for research on climate change within the South African wine industry. This project generated climatic and spatial information to use in further investigations of cultivar suitability and potential adaptation to climate change scenarios using modelling techniques. Climate and plant response (phenology) data is needed for multiple seasons to maintain and strengthen collaboration and partnerships around weather station networks in the SA wine industry. This is crucial considering the current issues with climate data availability to industry. Further exploration and implementation of remote sensing to supplement environmental data in regions with low weather station density were also important goals in this project. The ultimate aim of this project was to integrate data sources, in specific climate data and other GIS/remote sensing product layers, at different scales to compliment data on phenology, canopy growth, ripening and yield development at a vineyard scale.
The completion of Dr Southey’s PhD thesis laid a good foundation to integrate different data sources, namely climate, remote sensing and plant based responses (phenology). This can with more data collection be integrated into climate and plant based modelling to i.e. predict harvest date. New data importing software was developed to overcome challenges in climate data quality and accessibility from SAWS/ISCW, with the WANT tool and logger data importing allowing the collating of multiple sources. Preliminary protocols have been established in collaboration with the Geography Department using iLeaf data, for generating hourly resolution temperature maps. Good correlations between ground station and MODIS satellite data were found, which can be used to supplement weather station temporal and spatial gaps for temperature data. Low cost wireless temperature and relative humidity loggers were developed for high density spatial networks. Satellite data, UAV data and the robot in situ measurements can together monitor the development of the canopy and grapes through the one growing/ripening season, with results integrated with future development of the flagship “dassie” in-field robotics project.
The outputs have already formed part of several industry-targeted presentations; outcomes from the project and the PhD study highlighted the need for an updated hourly climate database for the Western Cape in the context of climate change. High temporal and spatial in-situ data is essential in the application of several new technologies. The study showed the importance of integration of climate data at different scale levels with plant and product (grape/wine) related data, as well as the potential use of remote sensing layers to compliment station and sensor data close to or within vineyards. The study improved on the software, hardware and data display options in the field for climate, remote sensing and plant responses, collating information in an efficient way to better understand the impact of climate change.
The research outcomes of this project aligns with the industry need for an interactive tool to access terrain and climate information to aid long and short-term decision-making at field level. Accessibility to information is more important than ever due to climate change driving the increased seasonal variability seen at farm level. Currently there are many data sources and models developed to add value to the user, but there are few attempts to integrate technologies, and make the information accessible. This need has resulted in the outcomes of this study, being integrated with the NT13 project currently funded by Winetech. The results from this study can be viewed by way of an online spatial decision support system to farm and field level (http://www.terraclim.co.za/).
The project also initialised the development of wireless low-cost dataloggers and potentially high-quality low-cost weather stations in the near future to overcome the sparse network of data collection.

Publications
Bellotto, A., Manzan, N., Greyling, B., Pitacco, A., Peterlunger, E., Strever, A., Poblete-Echeverría, C. (2017). Hyperspectral imaging for leaf grapevine water status assessment, a leaf-based approach. 20th International Symposium GiESCO, November 2017. Mendoza, Argentina. Proceedings of the 19th International Meeting GiESCO, 2017.

Hacking, C., Poona, N., Manzan, N., and Poblete-Echeverría C., (2019). Investigating 2-D and 3-D proximal remote sensing techniques for vineyard yield estimation. Sensors (In revision).

Loggenberg, K., Strever, A., Greyling, B. & Poona, N. (2018). Modelling Water Stress in a Shiraz Vineyard Using Hyperspectral Imaging and Machine Learning. Remote Sensing 2018, 10(2), 202; doi:10.3390/rs10020202.

Lüttich, F.R. (2019). Predictive Models for Smart Vineyards. MSc Science thesis, Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Stellenbosch University.

Manzan, N., Bellotto, A., Greyling, B., Pitacco, A., Peterlunger, E., Strever, A., Poblete-Echeverría, C. (2017). Grapevine bunch volume estimation using an infrared depth sensor under laboratory and field conditions. 20th International Symposium GiESCO, November 2017. Mendoza, Argentina. Proceedings of the 19th International Meeting GiESCO, 2017.

Southey, T. O. & Strever, A. (2017). Integrating climate and satellite remote sensing to assess the reaction of Vitis vinifera L. to a changing environment in the Western Cape, South Africa. Congress presentation of 20th Giesco International conference, 5-10 November 2017, Mendoza, Argentina.

Southey, T. O. (2017). Integrating climate and satellite remote sensing to assess the reaction of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon to a changing environment. Doctor of Philosophy (Agricultural Sciences) at Stellenbosch University Department of Viticulture and Oenology, Faculty of AgriSciences.

Southey, T. O. & Strever, A. (2018). Assessing the grapevine and environmental interactions: integrating weather and satellite data in the context of climate change, South Africa. The 30th International Horticultural Congress, 12 – 16 August 2018 Istanbul, Turkey.

Presentations
Southey, T. O. & Strever, A. (2017). Integrating climate and satellite remote sensing to assess the reaction of Vitis vinifera L. to a changing environment in the Western Cape, South Africa. Congress presentation of 20th Giesco International conference, 5-10 November 2017, Mendoza, Argentina.

Southey, T. O. & Strever, A. (2018). Assessing the grapevine and environmental interactions: integrating weather and satellite data in the context of climate change, South Africa. 3rd BRICS Young Scientist Forum, 25-29 June 2018, Durban, South Africa.

Southey, T. O. & Strever, A. (2018). Assessing the grapevine and environmental interactions: integrating weather and satellite data in the context of climate change, South Africa. The 30th International Horticultural Congress, 12 – 16 August 2018 Istanbul, Turkey.

Southey, T. O., Strever, A. & van Niekerk, A. (2018). Assessment of Grapevine and Environmental Interactions in The Context Of Climate Change For Improved Adaptation Strategies In South Africa. 4th Annual Conference on Climate Change & Development for early career researchers hosted by African Climate Development Initiative (ACDI).

Southey, T. O. & Strever, A. (2019). Vineyard and environment interactions driving reconsideration of terroir zoning methodologies in the context of climate change in South Africa. Congress presentation of 21st Giesco International conference, Greece.

Southey, T. O., Strever, A. & van Niekerk, A. (2019). Assessment of Grapevine and Environmental Interactions in the Context of Climate Change for Improved Adaptation Strategies in South Africa. African Climate Risk Conference, 7 – 9 October 2019, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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