Chemical and biological control of Phaeoacremonium chlamydosporum (Black goo)
Fourie, P H
Richter 110 rootstocks (700 per treatment) were drenched prior to grafting for 1 h in 40 L suspensions of benomyl, phosphoric acid, Trichoderma spp. (Trichoflow and Plant Health Products (PHP) Trichoderma), Bacillus spp., or clean tap water (control). Aside from the chemical or biological treatment, one batch was drenched in hot water (50°C) for 30 minutes. Following the various treatments, the rootstocks were air-dried before Cabernet Sauvignon was bench-grafted (Omega) onto the treated rootstocks. Following a hot callusing process, equal batches of vines from each treatment were planted in a greenhouse and in two nurseries (Rawsonville and Citrusdal). Percentage callus and shoot length were determined at this stage, and it was concluded that none of these treatments affected callusing negatively. Isolations to determine the percentage of black goo fungi in the rootstocks, however, showed that, although not statistically significant, hot water treatment reduced the percentage black goofungi from 1.98% in the control to 0.22%. At the end of the growing season, the vines were removed from the nurseries and greenhouse, percentage take and root and shoot mass determined. Although results varied, it was concluded that none of the treatments affected these parameters significantly. The main aim of this project, however, is to determine whether these treatments decrease the percentage of black goo fungi in rootstocks. This objective is currently being completed and data gathered for statistical analyses. The results will be incorporated in the final research report of this project.
Fourie, P H. 2000. Lessons learnt from diagnostic services at ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij. Presentation at the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture Short Course. Goudini, South Africa.
Fourie, P H. 2000. Fungi associated with grapevine wood, root and trunk diseases: a summary of the 1999-2000 results from the diagnostic services at ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij. Paper presented at the 2nd International Congress of the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture. 8-10 November, Cape Town, South Africa.
Fourie, P H. 2001. Die rol van black goo en swartvoetsiekte by terugsterwing van wingerd. August, Upington and Grabouw, South Africa.
Fourie, P H. 2001. Stam- en wortelsiektes van wingerd. Paper presented at the ARC Infruitec Nietvoorbij Disease and Pest Management Symposium. 16 August, Grabouw, South Africa.
Fourie, P H. 2001. Effect of chemical, biological and hot water treatments on the occurrence of phaeomoniella chlamydospora and Phaeoacremonium spp. in grapevine rootstocks. Paper presented at the 2nd International Workshop on Grapevine Trunk Diseases. 14-15 September, Lisbon, Portugal.
Fourie, P H. 2001. Field observations of black goo decline and black foot disease of grapevine. Paper presented at the 39th Congress of the South African Society for Plant Pathology. Nelspruit, South Africa.
Fourie, P H and Halleen, F. 2001. Stam- en wortelsiektes van wingerd. VinPro Regional Information Day, Robertson (6 June 2001), Paarl (27 August 2001), Barrydale (28 August 2001), Worcester (29 August 2001), Vredendal (4 September 2001), Stellenbosch (5 September 2001).
Fourie, P H and Halleen, F. 2001. Field and diagnostic observations of grapevine decline in South Africa. Paper presented at the 11th Congress of the Mediterranean Phytopathological Union, 17-20 September, Evora, Portugal.
Fourie, P H and Halleen, F. 2001. Grapevine decline in South Africa with specific reference to black goo decline and black foot disease. 13th Biennial Conference of the APPS. 24-27 September, Cairns.
Fourie, P H and Halleen, F. 2001. Current understanding of black goo decline and black foot disease of grapevine. 25th National Congress of the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture Congress. 15-16 November, Somerset West.
Fourie, P H and Halleen, F. 2002. Proactive measures in nurseries to control black goo decline in grapevines. 40th Congress of the SASPP. 20-23 January, Brits.
Fourie, P H and Halleen, F. 2002. Black goo simptome, voorkoming en bestryding. South African Society for Enology and Viticulture Vineyard Forum Winter Meeting, 7 June 2002.
Fourie, P H, Halleen, F, Groenewald, M, Crous, P W. 2000. Black goo decline of grapevine: current understanding of this mysterious disease, WineLand, Mnth Aug (p. 93-96)
Fourie, P H, Halleen, F. 2001. Diagnose van swamsiektes en hul betrokkenheid by terugsterwing van jong wingerd, WineLand, Mnth Dec (p. 102-107)
Fourie, P H, Halleen, F. 2002. Investigation on the occurrence of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora in canes of rootstock mother vines, Australasian Plant Pathology, v. 31 (p. 425-426)
Fourie, P H, Crous, P W. 2002. Beheermaatreëls vir black goo en swartvoet van wingerd: voorlopige resultate, WineLand, Mnth Jan (p. 117-119)
Halleen, F, Crous, P W, Petrini, O. 2003. Fungi associated with healthy grapevine cuttings in nurseries, with special reference to pathogens involved in the decline of young vines, Australasian Plant Pathology, v. 32 (1) (p. 47-52)