Beneficial use of winery solid waste: Composting

Project Number
WW 19-15

Project title
Beneficial use of winery solid waste: Composting

Project leader
Mulidzi, A R

Team members
Mulidzi, R
Raath, P
Fourie, J
Shange, P
Fell, M
Zingelwa, N
Baron, F
Harris, T

Project completed
2016

Project description
The wine industry has had an increase in popularity all around the world, consequently an increase in its contribution to environmental pollution. During the winemaking processes, more solid and liquid wastes are generated. In South Africa various treatment methods, management processes and guidelines, have been successfully documented for liquid wastes produced. However, in the case of solid waste, little has been done in order to document its production and management. Disposing of solid waste generated during winemaking processes is becoming problematic in the wine industry worldwide. Currently, some wineries sell their solid waste to companies such as Wastetech and Brenn-O-Kem where it is used for tartrate and alcohol extraction but with the unreliable economy this method can not be deemed as financially viable. Some of the solid waste is deposited into municipal landfills which is a disposal method that has its own restrictions especially in terms of capacity of the dumping sites and the unknown impacts of leachate into soil, groundwater and nearby dams and rivers as this waste contains wine filter residues such as bentonite and diatomaceous earth which may have negative environmental impacts if not handled properly.

The lack of monitoring and measuring of impacts of wastes on the environment could lead to serious problems for the wine industry as wineries are now being scrutinized to comply to legislature (NEMA, 1998) is being assessed and monitored by government bodies (DWAF, DEAT) for their waste generation, activities and management. Currently, there are no regulations established that can promote and support the utilization of sustainable waste treatment methods for winery solid waste.

The South African wine industry is proactive in addressing the environmental impacts of their businesses and is responsible for finding sustainable ways of managing solid waste. Composting of winery solid waste could be a value adding solution to wineries. However, clear guidelines on how to make compost using winery solid waste while causing minimum harm to the environment must be supplied to the wineries. This project proposal aims to suggest a way of providing an opportunity for enhanced winery solid waste re-use through composting. Solid winery waste will be treated through a trial that will investigate different compost making methods. The ultimate aim of this project is to use winery solid waste (grape marc and filter waste) to make quality compost.

Objectives: To define substrate and process parameters for effective composting using winery solid wastes. To supply the wine industry with a scientifically based guidelines for winery solid waste composting. To determine the environmental impact of winery solid waste composting.

Poster(s)
Mtimkulu, Y, Meyer, A, Nchu, F, Shange, P and Mulidzi, A R. Extracellular enzyme activities and microbial numbers during composting of winery solid waste as influenced by environmental factors. Poster presented at the 36th South African Society for Enology and Viticulture Conference. 12-14 November 2014, Somerset West, South Africa.

Mtimkulu, Y, Meyer, A H, Nchu, F. 2014. Temporal fluctuations in extracellular enzyme activities, microbial numbers, moisture and temperature, during composting of winery solid waste. Poster presented at the Combined Congress. 20-23 January 2014, Grahamstown, South Africa.

Shange, P. 2015. Winery solid waste management through composting. Paper presented at the 7th World Bulk Wine Exhibition. 23-24 November, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Presentation(s)
Shange, P, Mulidzi, A R and Masekwana, N. 2014. Beneficial use of winery solid waste through composting using spent wine filter materials. Paper presented at the 36th South African Society for Enology and Viticulture Conference. 12-14 November 2014, Somerset West, South Africa.

Masowa, M M, Shange, P, Kutu, F R, Muldizi, R and Vanassche, F M G. 2014. Greenhouse evaluation of maize performance following application of winery solid waste composts. Paper presented at the ARC Post Graduates Conference. 26 June 2014, Cape Town, South Africa.

Masowa, M M, Kutu, F R, Shange, P, Mulidzi, R and Vanassche, F M G . 2014. Nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium availability in winery solid waste composts. Paper presented at the Combined Congress. 19-22 January 2015, George, South Africa.

Shange, P, Mulidzi, A R and Masekwana, N. 2013. Beneficial use of winery solid waste: composting. Paper presented at the 35th South African Society for Enology and Viticulture Conference. 13-15 November, Somerset West, South Africa.

Masowa, M M, Kutu, F, Mulidzi, A R. 2014. Maize production using winery solid waste compost in sandy soils. Paper presented at the Combined Congress. 20-23 January, Grahamstown, South Africa.

Masowa, M M, Kutu, F, Shange, P, Mulidzi, A R. 2014. Maize production using winery solid waste compost in sandy soils. Paper presented at the ARC-PDP Conference. June 2014, Stellenbosch, Cape Town.

Shange, P. 2015. Winery solid waste management through composting. Paper presented at the 7th IWA Conference. 2 November, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Article
Masowa, M M, Kutu, F R, Shange, P L, Mulidzi, R, Vanassche, F M G. 2016. The effect of winery solid waste compost application on maize growth, biomass yield, and nutrient content under greenhouse conditions, Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, v. 62 (8) (p. 1082-1094)
https://doi.org/10.1080/03650340.2015.1115018

Mtimkulu, Y, Meyer, A H, Mulidzi, A R, Shange, P L, Nchu, F. 2016. Assessing and monitoring the effects of filter material amendments on the biophysicochemical properties during composting of solid winery waste under open field and varying climatic conditions, Waste Management, Mnth January v. 59 (p. 59-69)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2016.10.042

Thesis
Masowa, M M. 2015. Greenhouse evaluation of maize performance and changes in chemical properties of soil following application of winery solid waste composts. M.Sc Science and Agriculture (Soil Science) University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of AgriSciences. Department of Soil Science. Stellenbosch.

 

 

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