Analysis of the Relationship Between Diet and Genetic Risk Factors with a Special Emphasis on the Effects of Alcohol Consumption on Health and Disease


Project Number
N09 08-225 2012

Project title
Analysis of the relationship between diet and genetic risk factors with a special emphasis on the effects of alcohol consumption on health and disease.

Project leader
Kotze, M J

Institution
University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Health Sciences. Department of Pathology

Team members
Van Velden, D P
Kotze, M J
Kidd, Y

Project description
Diets that contain antioxidants such as flavonoids present in red wine may modulate the risk of cardiovascular disease and other chronic inflammatory diseases caused by gene-environment interaction. These include Alzheimer’s disease, osteoporosis and osteoarthritis, for which no validated recommendations exist that takes the genetic component into account.

By the age of 85, the lifetime risk of Alzheimer’s disease without reference to genetic risk factors is approximately 11% in males and 14% in females. However, in the presence of the E4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene, this risk increases to 51% in males and 60% in females with the ApoE44 genotype. In heterozygous carriers the risk was 23% in ApoE34 males and 30% in female carriers, consistent with semi-dominant inheritance of a moderately penetrant gene (Genin et al. 2011). Estimates were globally similar and reached the highest lifetime risk in some European populations, of up to 68% and 35% for females with the ApoE 44 and ApoE 34 genotypes. These risks are more similar to those of major genes in Mendelian diseases, such as BRCA1 in breast cancer, than those of low-risk common alleles identified by recent genome-wide association studies in complex diseases. In addition, stratification of the data by age groups clearly demonstrated that the ApoE4 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is a risk factor not only for late-onset but for early-onset AD as well. Frequent alcohol intake appears to be one of the most important environmental co-factors for the development of AD in the presence of the ApoE4 allele, due to gene-diet interaction (nutrigenetics). However, moderate alcohol intake appears to have a beneficial effect in relation to cognitive decline in the absence of the ApoE4 allele. The effect of moderate alcohol intake as a co-factor for development or protection against osteoporosis and osteoarthritis has not been clarified.

The reduction of oxidative damage to important cellular molecules such as DNA, proteins and lipids represents an important clinical goal in the prevention of chronic inflammatory conditions. However, the lack of prospective observational data on health outcomes in individuals with low/abstain, moderate and high intake of alcohol in relation to their genetic profile limits our ability to provide evidence-based nutritional guidelines that will benefit the public. This study will be an extension of an initial analysis of 37 volunteers who participated in a wine and brandy intervention study conducted during 2011. The aim is to evaluate the impact of gene-environment interaction on health outcomes over a 3 year period and ultimately assess the clinical utility of incorporating genetic testing to guide nutrition intervention in a clinical setting.

Presentation(s)
Lückhoff, H K, Van Rensburg, S J and Kotze, M J. 2010. Health claims on the benefits of moderate alcohol consumption in relation to genetic profiles. Paper presented at the 4th Wine Health Conference 2010. 3-6 October 2010, Friuli, Italy.

Kotze, M J, Van Velden, D P, Kidd, M, Marnewick, J and Fisher, L R. 2013. Assessment of the impact of biochemical factors of cardiovascular risk in relation to moderate alcohol consumption. Paper presented at the 8th International Congress on Wine and Health Conference: WineHealth 2013. 18-20 July, Sydney, Australia.

Lückhoff, H K, Van Rensburg, S J and Kotze, M J. 2015. A novel clinical application for apolipoprotein E genotyping: A critical window of opportunity to reduce the burden of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease in the general population. Paper presented at the 12th SONA 2015 Meeting. 26-30 March 2015, Durban, South Africa.

Lückhoff, H K, Kidd, M, Van Rensburg, S J and Kotze, M J. 2015. Benefits of Apolipoprotein E genotyping in dyslipidemic patients with a family history of Alzheimer’s disease to optimize cardiovascular risk management. Paper presented at the 16th Southern African Society of Human Genetics Congress, 16-19 August, 2015, Pretoria, South Africa.

Lückhoff, H K, Van Rensburg, S J and Kotze, M J. A novel clinical application for
apolipoprotein E genotyping: A critical window of opportunity to reduce the burden of
late-onset Alzheimer’s disease in the general population. Presentation at the Pathology Research Day NHLS.

Article
Mansvelt, E P G, Fourie, E, Blackhurst, D M, Kotze, T, Stofberg, H, Van der Merwe, S, Kotze, M J, Van Velden, D P. 2007. The influence of a Mediterranean diet with and without red wine on the haemostatic and inflammatory parameters of subjects with the metabolic syndrome, South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture, v. 28 (1) (p. 37-43)
Article.pdf

Van Velden, D P, Van der Merwe, S, Fourie, E, Kidd, M, Blackhurst, D M, Kotze, M J, Mansvelt, E P G. 2007. The short-term influence of a Mediterranean-type diet and mild exercise with and without red wine on patients with the metabolic syndrome, South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture, v. 28 (1) (p. 44-49)
Article.pdf

Van Velden, D P. 2010. Gesondheidsvoordele van wyn is afhanklik van interaksie tussen gene en omgewing, WineLand, Mnth Aug (p. 106-107)
Article.pdf

Kotze, M J, Van Velden, D P. 2011. Waar staan ons nou met alkohol en gesondheid? WineLanad, Mnth Oct (p. 133-136)
Article.pdf

Van Velden, D P, Kotze, M J, Blackhurst, D, Kidd, M. 2011. Health claims on the benefits of moderate alcohol consumption in relation to genetic profiles, Journal of Wine Research, v. 22 (p. 123-129)
Article.pdf

Kotze, M J, Marnewick, J L, Kidd, M, Fisher, L R, Van Velden, D P. 2014. Assessment of the impact of hereditary factors on biochemical parameters of cardiovascular risk in relation to moderate alcohol consumption, Nutrition and Ageing, v. 2 (2-3) (p. 189-195)
http://dx/doi.orh/10.3233/NUA-130035

Van Velden, D P, Kotze, M J. 2014. Integrative medicine – healthy ageing, Nutrition and Ageing, v. 2 (2-3) (p. 183-187)
http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/NUA-130025

Luckhoff, H K, Brand, T, Van Velden, D P, Kidd, M, Fisher, L R, Van Rensburg, S J, Kotze, M J. 2015. Clinical relevance of apolipoprotein E genotyping based on a family history of Alzheimer’s disease, Current Alzheimer’s Research, v. 12 (3) (p. 210-217)
http://doi.org/10.2174/1567205012666150302154354

FinalReport.pdf

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