Underground population dynamics of vine mealybug
Walton, V M
University of Stellenbosch
P. ficus occurred on all six plant parts investigated on vines in each of the three areas. The ground and root areas were occupied by P. ficus populations in all three areas. Small differences between the three areas were detected in the subterranean plant parts (ground and roots). The most suitable soil type (sandy) was found in McGregor, followed by loamy soils in Stellenbosch and clayey soils in Robertson. The largest portion of P. ficus occurred on the hidden plant areas such as the main stem, ground and roots. This indicates that chemical sprays should be directed toward these areas to increase efficiency. Both chemical control treatments were effective to control P. ficus to such an extent so as to prevent them from infesting the bunch areas. This resulted in no crop losses in all of the areas during this season. None of the chemical control treatments however resulted in 100% P. ficus control and new control strategies will be implemented during the next two seasons.
Walton, V M. 2003. Development in and future of mealybug research. Presentation to the ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij Virus Work Group. 5 May, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
Walton, V M. 2003. Integrated vine mealybug control in South Africa. Paper presented at the Unified Wine and Grape Symposium. Sacramento. January, California, United States.
Walton, V M. 2004. Seasonal population studies of vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret), and its natural enemies in vineyards in the Western Cape, South Africa. Paper presented at the 4th California Conference on Biological Control. 13-15 July. Berkeley, California, United States.
Walton, V M. 2004. Integrated control of vine mealybug. Presentation at the Sun-Maid Farmers’ Day. April. University of California, Berkeley, United States.
Walton, V M. 2005. Mating disruption of vine mealybug with female sex pheromone. Congress of the Entomological Society of South Africa. July, Grahamstown, South Africa.
Walton, V M. 2005. Integrated mealybug management. Lecture at the Oregon State University. June, Corvallis, Oregon, United States.
Walton, V M. 2005. Mealybugs in California vineyards. Lecture at the California Polytechnical University. May, California, United States.
Walton, V M. 2005. Managing mealybugs as a vine leaf roll vector. Presentation at the Gallo Winery Farmers’ Day. April, Lodi, California, United States.
Walton, V M. 2003. Degree-day estimation as a warning tool for vine mealybug infestation in vineyards, WineLand, Mnth Dec (p. 86)
Walton, V M, Daane, K M, Pringle, K L. 2004. Monitoring Planococcus ficus in South African vineyards with sex pheromone-baited traps, Crop Protection, v. 23 (11) (p. 1089-96)
Walton, V M, Pringle, K L. 2004. Vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera Pseudococcidae), a key pest in South African vineyards: a review, South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture, v. 25 (2) (p. 54-62)
Walton, V M. 2004. Die gebruik van graaddae as hulp in die bepaling van wingerdwitluis besmetting in wingerde, WineLand, Mnth Dec (p. 76)
Walton, V M. 2004. Degree-day estimates as a warning tool for vine mealybug infestation in vineyards, Wynboer Technical Yearbook, (p. 53)
Walton, V M. 2004. Protocol for the control of mealybug in vineyards (production blocks) Wynboer Technical Yearbook, (p. 48-49)
Walton, V M. 2005. Developmental biology of the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret)(Homoptera:Pseudococcidae), and its parasitoid Coccidoxenoides perminutus (Timberlake) (Hymenoptera:Encyrtridae) African Entomology, v. 13 (1) (p. 143-147)
Daane, K M, Bentley, W J, Walton, V M, Malakar-Kuenen, R, Yokota, G Y, Millar, J G, Ingels, C A, Weber, E A, Gispert, C. 2006. New controls investigated for vine mealybugs, Californian Agriculture, v. 60 (1) (p. 31-38)