The effect of row direction on the physiological, viticultural and enological performance of Shiraz/101-14 Mgt

Project Number
WW 12-20

Project title
The effect of row direction on the physiological, viticultural and enological performance of Shiraz/101-14 Mgt

Project leader
Hunter, J J

Project description
The aim of the project is to determine the physiological, viticultural and enological effects of row direction, to make recommendations regarding the direction of planting for wine grapes, and to contribute to the exploitation of wine grape cultivars and improvement of cost efficiency.

The project will be carried out at the Robertson experimental farm of ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij. Vines will be planted in four directions, namely north-south, east-west, north-east-south-west, and north-west-south-east. They will be spaced 1.8 x 2.7 m and vertically trained. Physiological, viticultural and enological data will be collected. Vines will be monitored from year (season) three to five (2003-2006), after which the project will be suspended with minimum maintenance. Monitoring will resume in year nine and continue until year 12 (2009-2012). Results will be evaluated after the initial monitoring period in order to determine the suitability thereof for the set-up of a universal model regarding the choice of row direction. Recommended viticultural practices will be followed with vine development, fertilisation, and cover crop and disease management, whereas canopy management will be done in such a way that uniform, optimal canopies are obtained. Soil preparation for the planting of the experiment in August and September is done, whereas poles, wire, irrigation material and plant material are purchased.

Worldwide little is known about the effect of row direction on vine performance. The choice of a row direction is a critical long term decision, which has a determining effect on cost efficiency and eventual wine quality. This project will quantify the effect of row direction on physiological, viticultural and enological performance under South African conditions and in this way contribute to an optimal planting strategy and top quality production.

Poster(s)
Hunter, J J and Volschenk, C G. 2008. Implications of grapevine row orientation in South Africa. Poster presented at the 7th International Terroir Congress. 14-18 June 2008, Soave, Italy.

Presentation(s)
Novello, V and Hunter, J J. 2004. Canopy photosynthetic activity and water relations of Syrah/R99 as affected by row orientation on a particular terroir. Paper presented at the International Conference on Viticultural Zoning. 15-19 November, Cape Town, South Africa.

Hunter, J J. 2007. Effect of row direction on the physiological, viticultural and enological performance of Shiraz/101-14Mgt. Presentation at the Winetech Seminar, September.

Hunter, J J. 2007. Effect of row direction on the physiological, viticultural and enological performance of Shiraz/101-14Mgt. Presentation to the Stellenbosch Producers’ Study Group Seminar. November, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Hunter, J J. 2008. Row orientation of Shiraz: Implications for canopy exposure, grape composition and wine quality. Presentation at Distell’s Farmers’ Day. December, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Hunter, J J. 2009. Implication of row orientation. VinPro Information Day. May, Ashton, South Africa.

Hunter, J J. 2009. Impact of row orientation on Shiraz – canopy exposure, grape composition and wine quality. VinPro Information Day. May, Worcester, South Africa.

Hunter, J J, Volschenk, C G and Bonnardot, V M F. 2010. Linking grapevine row orientation to a changing climate in South Africa. Paper presented at the 16th German Grape and Wine Congress. 24-27 March, Stuttgart, Germany.

Hunter, J J, Archer, E and Volschenk, C G. 2010. Improving grape and wine quality – practices and further dimensions. Paper presented at the Romeo Bragato Conference. 26-29 August, Blenheim, New Zealand.

Hunter, J J. 2010. Trellising systems, canopy management and grape/wine quality. Paper presented at the Conference on Grapevine Ecophysiology: Management, Yield and Quality. 6-7 October, Mendoza, Argentina.

Hunter, J J. 2010. Choices of long and short term practices for improving grape and wine quality. Presentation to the University of Montevideo, Faculty of Agriculture, National Institute for Viticulture and Enology. 8 October, Uruguay.

Hunter, J J. 2010. Grape ripening and timing of harvest. Presentation to the University of Montevideo, Faculty of Agriculture, National Institute for Viticulture and Enology. 9 October, Uruguay.

Hunter, J J and Strever, A E. 2010. The harvesting window. Presentation to the University of Budapest. 2 November, Budapest, Hungary.

Hunter, J J and Archer, E. 2010. How to increase the length of the harvesting window. Presentation at the Winetech Information Day. 19 October, Robertson, South Africa.

Hunter, J J and Archer, E. 2010. Complications of the harvesting window. Presentation to the Nieto Senetier Winery. 26 November, Mendoza, Argentina.

Hunter, J J and Archer, E. 2010. Long and short term viticulture practices to create quality grapes and wine. Presentation to the Trapiche Winery. 22 November, Mendoza, Argentina.

Pisciotta, A, Di Lorenzo, R, Volschenk, C G and Hunter, J J. 2011. Relation between row and leaf orientation of Syrah/101-14Mgt. Paper presented at the 17th International Symposium GiESCO. 29 August – 02 September, Asti, Italy.

Hunter, J J. 2012. Physiological and practical aspects of grapevine deficit water relations. Presentation to the University of Turin. 8 May, Alba, Italy.

Hunter, J J, Zorer, R, Strever, A E and Rocchi, L. 2012. Berry temperature qualification and implications within a complex canopy bunch environment in the field. Presentation to the University of Milan. 10 May, Milan, Italy.

Hunter, J J. 2012. Physical and physiological changes in the grape berry in a future high temperature and water deficit environment. Presentation to the Corvicus University. 24 May, Hungary.

Minnaar, P and Hunter, J J. 2012. Anthocyanin and sensory attributes of Vitis vinifera cv. Shiraz wines as affected by row orientation and ripeness levels. Paper presented at the 9th International Terroir Congress. 26-29 June, Dijon, France.

Hunter, J J. 2012. Vine balance – impact of climate change. Presentation to ESA. 6 May, Angers, France.

Hunter, J J and Zorer, R. 2012. Implications of heat waves. Presentation at the Winetech Information Day. 6 May, Paarl, South Africa.

Hunter, J J. 2012. Physiological contributions to viticulture in South Africa. Presentation to the ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij. 26 July, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Moffat, T F, Hunter, J J, Zorer, R, Mehmel, T O and Strever, A E. 2012 Assessment of grape bunch light environment and temperature variability in Vitis vinifera cv. Shiraz. Paper presented at the 34th National Congress of the South African Society for Enology and Viticulture. 14-16 November, Somerset West, South Africa.

Hunter, J J. 2013. Perspectives on South African viticulture. Lecture. University of Corvinus. 18 April, Hungary.

Hunter, J J. 2013. Current South African viticulture. Lecture. ESA. 6 May, Angers, France.

Hunter, J J. 2013. Vine balance – impact of climate change. Lecture. ESA. 6 May, Angers, France.

Hunter, J J. 2013. Vine balance for sustainability. Lecture. University of Turin. 9 May, Asti, Italy.

Minnaar, P P and Hunter, J J. 2013. Anthocyanins, flavonols, and flavanols of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz wines as affected by row orientation and ripeness level. Paper presented at the 18th International GiESCO Symposium. 7-11th July, Porto, Portugal.

Melo, M S, Schultz, H R and Hunter, J J. 2013. Implications of berry size variation of Vitis vinifera L. cv Shiraz. Paper presented at the 18th International GiESCO Symposium. 7-11th July, Porto, Portugal.

Moffat, T F, Hunter, J J, Zorer, R and Strever, A E. 2013. Assessment of grape bunch temperature variability in Vitis vinifera L. cv Shiraz. Paper presented at the 18th International GiESCO Symposium. 7-11th July, Porto, Portugal.

Zorer, R, Moffat, T F, Strever, A E and Hunter, J J. 2013. Hourly simulation of grape bunch light microclimate using hemispherical photography. Paper presented at the 18th International GiESCO Symposium. 7-11th July, Porto, Portugal.

Hunter, J J. 2013. Ways to manage grape and wine quality under erratic environmental conditions in Ontario. Lecture. Brook University. 22 August, Ontario, Canada.

Hunter, J J. 2013. Ways to manage grape and wine quality under erratic environmental conditions in Okanagan Valley. Presentation to the Summerland Research Institute, 28 August, Okanagan Valley, Canada.

Hunter, J J, Volschenk, C G and Strever, A E. 2013. Adapting row orientation and in-row vine spacing to terroir properties. Paper presented at the 35th South African Society for Enology and Viticulture Conference. 13-15 November, Somerset West, South Africa.

Hunter, J J. 2013. Marrying viticulture practices and sustainability. Paper presented at the 14th Latin American Congress of Viticulture and Enology. 20-22 November 2013, Tarija, Bolivia.

Article
Archer, E, Hunter, J J. 2010. Praktyke vir volhoubare wingerdbou (Deel 2): Ryrigting stokspasiering en prieelstelsels, WineLand, Mnth Apr (p. 60-71)
Article.pdf

Archer, E, Hunter, J J. 2010. Praktyke vir volhoubare wingerdbou (Deel 2): Ryrigting stokspasiering en prieelstelsels, WineLand, Mnth Apr (p. 60-71)
Article.pdf

Archer, E, Hunter, J J. 2010. Praktyke vir volhoubare wingerdbou (Deel 6): Lowerbestuur, WineLand, Mnth Aug (p. 95-103)
Article.pdf

Minnaar, P J, Hunter, J J. 2010. Swartpeper karakter van Shiraz druiwe en wyn, WineLand, Mnth Jun (p. 102)
Swartpeper karakter van Shiraz druiwe en wyn

Guidoni, S, Hunter, J J. 2012. Anthocyanin profile in berry skins and fermenting must and wine, as effected by grape ripeness level of Vitis vinifera cv. Shiraz/R99, European Journal of Food Research and Technology, v. 8 (p. 397-408)
DOI: 10.1007/s00217-012-1744-5

Strever, A E, Bezuidenhout, D, Zorer, R, Moffat, T, Hunter, J J. 2012. Optical and thermal applications in grapevine (vitis vinifera L.) research – An overview and some novel approaches, South African Institute of Electrical Engineers Research Journal, v. 103 (1) (p. 55-60)

Giacosa, S, Marengo, F, Rolle, L, Hunter, J J. 2015. Anthocyanin yield and skin softening during maceration, as affected by vineyard row orientation and grape ripeness of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz, Food Chemistry, Mnth May v. 174 (p. 8-15)
http://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.10.155

Melo, M S, Schultz, H R, Volschenk, C G, Hunter, J J. 2015. Berry size variation of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Syrah: Morphological dimensions, berry composition and wine quality, South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture, v. 36 (1) (p. 1-10)
Article.pdf

Paper
Novello, V, Hunter, J J. 2004. Canopy photosynthetic activity and water relations of Syrah/R99 as affected by row orientation on a particular terroir, IN: Proceedings of the Joint Conference (SASEV, OIV and GESCO) on Viticultural Zoning. (p. 452-459) 15-19 November,

Hunter, J J, Volschenk, C G. 2008. Implications of grapevine row orientation in South Africa, IN: Proceedings of the 7th International Terroir Congress. (p. 336-342) 14-18 June 2008,

Nadal, M, Rozes, N, Hunter, J J. 2009. Canopy side sun exposure effects on bunches during ripening of Shiraz/99, IN: Proceedings of the 16th International GiESCO Symposium. 12-16 July 2009, Davis, California. (p. 336-342)

Hunter, J J, Archer, E, Volschenk, C G. 2010. Vineyard management for environment valorisation, IN: Proceedings of the 8th Joint Conference (SASEV, OIV and GiESCO) on Viticultural Zoning. (p. 7-3-7-15) 14-18 June 2010,

Hunter, J J, Archer, E, Volschenk, C G. 2010. Improving grape and wine quality: Practices and further dimensions, IN: Proceedings of the Romeo Bragato Conference. (p. 67-90) 26-29 August 2010,

Hunter, J J, Volschenk, C G, Bonnardot, V M F. 2010. Linking grapevine row orientation in South Africa, IN: Proceedings of the Intervitis Interfructa. (p. 60-67) 24-28 March 2010,

Pisciotta, A, Lorenzo, D, Volschenk, C G, Hunter, J J. Novello, V (ed). 2011. Relation between row and leaf orientation of Syrah/101-14 Mgt, IN: Proceedings of 17th International GiESCO Symposium. Progres Agricole et Viticole, (p. 323-325) 29 August – 02 September 2011,
http://hdl.handle.net/10449/21429

Melo, M S, Schultz, H R, Hunter, J J. 2013. Implications of berry size variation of Vitis vinifera L. cv Shiraz, IN: Proceedings of the 18th International GiESCO Symposium. 7-11th July, Porto, Portugal. (p. 776-780)

Minnaar, P P, Hunter, J J. 2013. Anthocyanins, flavonols and flavanols of Vitis vinifera L.cv. Shiraz wines as affected by row orientation and ripeness level, IN: Proceedings of the18th International GiESCO Symposium. 7-11th July, Porto, Portugal. (p. 417-421)

Moffat, T F, Hunter, J J, Zorer, R, Strever, A E. 2013. Assessment of grape bunch temperature variability in Vitis vinifera L. cv Shiraz, IN: Proceedings of the 18th International GiESCO Symposium. 7-11th July, Porto, Portugal. (p. 759-764)

 

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